Pine Creek Medical Center Dallas Medical Center Tue, 30 Oct 2018 16:42:45 +0000 en-US hourly 1 What is a Gastrointestinal Stent? Sat, 09 Mar 2019 16:53:04 +0000 Esophageal, Colonic, and Enteric Stenting

A gastrointestinal stent is an expandable, tubular support that is placed inside a segment of a gastrointestinal organ like the esophagus, colon, or intestine. It is used for treatment and palliation of an obstruction in the gastrointestinal tract due to various diseases.

A stent is generally small (about the size of a pen), but it gently expands once it is placed inside the affected gastrointestinal organ. Stent placement will facilitate the creation of a channel or a passageway through the blockage and will allow the organ to function normally.

What are the Different Types of Gastrointestinal Stents?

Gastrointestinal stents can be classified as follows:

  • Esophageal Stent – an esophageal stent is usually placed through an obstructed area of your food tube (medically termed as the esophagus). This will allow food and drinks to pass through from the mouth to the stomach and intestines for digestion and absorption of vitamins and nutrients.

It is commonly recommended to individuals with inoperable malignancies of the esophagus such as tumors.

  • Colonic Stent – a colonic stent is used to keep a part of the large bowel open from obstruction such as a tumor or a narrowing which is also called a stricture.
  • Enteric Stent – an enteric stent can be inserted in the gastrointestinal tract if you have a tumor or any growth that causes an obstruction in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine or large intestine.

Why Undergo Gastrointestinal Stenting?

A gastrointestinal stent can be suggested by your doctor or surgeon when there is either a complete or partial blockage in your esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or large intestine. The goal for stenting is to remove the obstruction and reduce the pressure that it causes.

Stents are also recommended for individuals who cannot undergo surgery and needs an alternative to keep the gastrointestinal organ working.

What are the Risks Associated with Gastrointestinal Stenting?

Majority of patients who had gastrointestinal stenting (either esophageal, colonic, or enteric) did not have any complications from the procedure. However, you should also be aware of its risks before having the procedure.

The possible risks associated with esophageal, colonic, or enteric stenting may include any of the following:

  • Bleeding – it is expected to have a minimal amount of bleeding which may be caused by the stent rubbing the lining of the gastrointestinal tract or a tumor
  • Infection – any procedure involving the introduction or insertion of a foreign material inside the body may increase the chance of getting an infection
  • Pain – you may experience pain in the abdomen as the gastrointestinal tract returns to normal after insertion of the stent
  • Perforation – a perforation is a hole that can cause a leak of the contents of any of the gastrointestinal organs into the abdominal cavity. It rarely occurs, but it is a severe complication that requires surgery
  • Failure to insert – a stent may not be inserted if a tumor is too large. Sometimes, the position of the tumor may also make it impossible to place a stent on the affected area
  • Stent migration a stent may become loose and dislodged causing pain or recurrence of signs and symptoms that existed before the procedure
  • Re-obstruction – the stent may cause further obstruction if the tumor grows through it

How is a Gastrointestinal Stent Inserted?

Gastrointestinal stenting usually takes approximately 25 minutes to 1 hour depending on how accessible the blockage or obstruction is.

  • Before the procedure, you may be given an enema – a liquid laxative which will be introduced into your bottom to clean the bowel.
  • An oxygen will also be given through your nose.
  • Then, you will be given a sedative to make you feel relaxed during the procedure.
  • An endoscope will be used to allow your doctor to see the insides of your gastrointestinal tract.
  • The gastrointestinal stent is then delivered through the endoscope to the site of the obstruction
  • Once the stent is in correct position, your doctor will allow the stent to slowly expand in place
  • The endoscope is then withdrawn.

For the first 24 hours after the procedure, you may feel sore in your throat area or behind your breastbone. It may heal by itself and may also be relieved by a mild pain medication that will be prescribed by your doctor.

You may need to stay in the hospital overnight for the healthcare staff to monitor you for any complications.

Majority of patients who had stent insertion say they feel more comfortable after one to two days post-procedure.

What Happens After a Gastrointestinal Stent Insertion?

You will be monitored and cared for at the recovery room after your gastrointestinal stenting. The healthcare staff will check your vital signs and ensure that you are comfortable before you get transferred to your room. If you feel well after 4 hours, your doctor may allow you to drink clear fluids. However, eating any food for the first 24 hours after the procedure is not recommended. You may be placed on a modified, pureed, low-residue diet a day after the procedure to prevent blocking in the stent. Your diet will be explained further by your doctor.

Esophageal, Colonic, and Enteric Stenting at Pine Creek Medical Center

This article is an overview of the procedure called gastrointestinal stenting (esophageal, colonic, enteric). It explains some of the basic indications, risks, and advantages of the procedure. However, it is not meant to replace an informed discussion between you and a trained doctor specializing in stenting like the ones that we have at Pine Creek Medical Center.

Whether you are already scheduled for a gastrointestinal stenting as planned, or just doing a research as a starting point of discussion about the procedure, we will be happy to book you an appointment and discuss further details about the procedure. Our highly-trained gastrointestinal specialists can answer any questions that you have with regards to gastrointestinal stenting.


  • Hindy, Pierre et al. “A comprehensive review of esophageal stents” Gastroenterology & hepatology 8,8 (2012): 526-34.
  • Kim, Sang Gyun and Chang-Hun Yang. “Upper gastrointestinal stent” Clinical endoscopy 45,4 (2012): 386-91.
  • Lopera JE, Gregorio MAD, Laborda A, , Casta?o R. “Enteral stents: Complications and their management”. Gastrointestinal Intervention 2016;5:138-148.
  • Park, Jin-Seok et al. “Recent Advances in Gastrointestinal Stent Development” Clinical endoscopy 48,3 (2015): 209-15.
  • Razzak A.A., Ross A.S., Kozarek R.A. (2018) “Gastrointestinal Tract Stenting”. In: Sridhar S., Wu G. (eds) Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures in Gastroenterology. Clinical Gastroenterology. Humana Press, Cham DOI.
  • Sarkar, Sanchoy, Joe Geraghty and Paul Rooney. “Colonic stenting: a practical update.” Frontline Gastroenterology. vol. 4, 3. (2013);4:219-226 Web.<>.
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What is a Gastroscopy? Mon, 11 Feb 2019 16:38:17 +0000 Gastroscopy: Examination of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

Gastroscopy is a special procedure that is used by gastroenterologists to examine the condition of the walls and the lining of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This means that the procedure can check if your esophagus (a tube that serves a passageway, bringing food from mouth to the stomach), your stomach, and your duodenum (first part of the small intestine) is healthy or not.


Gastroscopy is generally safe. Complications and serious problems may be rare, but like with other medical procedures, life-threatening effects are possible. The most common risks associated with gastroscopy are:

  • Bleeding where the biopsy was taken (rare and usually heals on its own)
  • Infection
  • Perforation (tear) on the lining of the upper GI tract
  • Reaction to sedation or anesthesia

If you have concerns and questions about the risks listed above, talk to your doctor. You and your doctor should weigh these possible risks against the benefits of undergoing with the procedure.


A gastroscopy may be advised by your doctor for any of the following reasons:

  • To check any abnormalities in the upper GI tract
  • To evaluate a lesion found during other diagnostic examinations
  • If you have a dilated bile duct or any structural problem related to the bile ducts
  • To find causes of symptoms such as:
    • Abdominal pain
    • Anemia
    • Black stools
    • Blood in stools
    • Chest pain or heartburn
    • Extreme weight loss
    • Indigestion
    • Lumps in the upper abdomen
    • Nausea and vomiting for an extended period
    • Passing of black stools
    • Swallowing problems
    • Suspected peptic ulcer
  • To take tissue samples (biopsies) which will be checked for further tests
  • And help your doctor decide on which treatment is the best for your condition
  • Or to determine if other examinations are needed


Your doctor will give you instructions on how to prepare for your gastroscopy. It is essential that you follow all the preparation instructions to complete the procedure successfully.

1. Discuss any concerns or questions you have with your doctor. It is essential for you to tell your doctor about any allergies, concerns, or medical conditions you have before the procedure. You should also inform him/her if you are taking any supplements, herbal medications, vitamins, or other prescribed medications.

2. Modify your diet and fluid intake. You must not eat or drink 6 to 8 hours before your scheduled gastroscopy. Small sips of water may be allowed for comfort if you get very thirsty, but you should not take anything else. This is important because food, drinks, or any stomach content can prevent your examiner from getting a clear view of the insides of your upper GI tract. Any food content may also increase the risk of aspiration (inhaling or breathing in any content of the stomach into the lungs) which may block the airways or cause pneumonia.

3. Verify with your doctor if you can continue taking medications. If you are taking medications due to other medical conditions (such as anticoagulants or diabetic medications), it is crucial that you inform your doctor.

4. Ask a friend or a family member to drive you home after the procedure. It is recommended for you to arrange a ride home after the procedure, especially if you are given an anesthesia or a sedative. Any of these medications can make you drowsy, unfocused, or forgetful for up to 24 hours after the procedure. Aside from driving, you must also avoid drinking alcohol, sign legally binding documents, or operate any machinery (especially heavy ones).


  1. You will be assisted by a nurse or a health care aide to the examination room. There, you may be able to ask some questions if you still have concerns.
  2. Any dentures will be removed, and you may be given a mouth guard in between your teeth to protect your oral cavity during the examination.
  3. You will be positioned on your left side, and a monitoring device will be set to monitor your vital signs.
  4. Before the procedure, you will be given either a sedative or a local anesthetic (throat spray) that can be used to numb the throat so the procedure would not cause pain or discomfort during the process.
  5. A small suction tube (like the ones being used by dentists) will be used to drain saliva or secretions from your mouth.
  6. To perform the procedure, a gastroscope is used. It is a flexible, long, thin tube that has a tiny ultrasound probe (camera and light). It is passed through the mouth, through the esophagus, stomach, and into the duodenum. The images taken by the camera will be sent to a screen that can be viewed by the examiner.


Because of the use of a sedative or an anesthetic, you will be required to rest for up to 2 hours or until the effects of the sedative or medication wear off. Your vital signs will be monitored including your blood glucose if you are diabetic.

Once you are awake and have recovered with the effects of anesthesia or sedative, you may be offered a biscuit and a drink.

After 24 hours, expect full recovery. Please follow the advice and the discharge instructions set by your physician.


During the next 48 hours post gastroscopy, watch out for any problems such as worsening abdominal pain or chest pain. A persistent sore throat should also be taken note of. If you experience any of these symptoms, please contact your doctor.


This article only explains some of the basic information about Gastroscopy. It will help you get an idea of the procedure, but you still need to talk with your doctor because each case is different. We recommend that you book an appointment with one of our doctors to help you make an informed decision about the procedure. Call Pine Creek Medical Center at 214-231-CARE (2273).


• “Gastroscopy.” Oxford University Hospitals. NHS | Oxford University Hospitals | NHS Foundation Trust, Web. <>.

• Helsley, Gordon, M.D. “Gastroscopy: A New Method for Introduction of the Gastroscope.” JAMA. (1924;82(3):207–208. doi:10.1001/jama.1924.26520290002011c): Web.<>.

• “What happens during a gastroscopy? – Informed Health Online – NCBI Bookshelf.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. NCBI, Web. <>.

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What is an Endoscopy? Tue, 08 Jan 2019 21:38:38 +0000 WHAT IS AN ENDOSCOPY?

Endoscopy is a diagnostic procedure (can also be used for treatment) that allows your doctor to view the digestive/gastrointestinal tract using a sophisticated instrument called an endoscope.


An endoscope is a flexible instrument with advanced imaging capabilities and specialized features that can also be used for advanced therapeutic interventions. There are also various types of endoscopes, each with a unique design to enable viewing of different areas of the gastrointestinal tract.


Endoscopes are generally used for the assessment and examination of the digestive tract. Evolving from a rigid structure with very limited capabilities, they are made flexible with the ability to increase its magnification potential. Aside from that, they are categorized based on which parts the endoscopes are used for:

  • Gastroscopes – gastroscopes are endoscopes that are designed primarily for use in the upper part of the digestive tract (the esophagus, the stomach, and the duodenum), a procedure termed as gastroscopy. To know more about gastroscopy, click here to read our article on the subject.
  • Duodenoscopes – duodenoscopes are types of endoscopes that are mainly used for Endoscopic Retrograde
  • Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP) – a diagnostic procedure used to check the condition of the liver, bile ducts, and pancreas.
  • Enteroscopes – these endoscopes are similarly designed to gastroscopes except that enteroscpes have a longer insertion tube to allow examination of the parts of the small intestine – the duodenum, the jejunum, and in rare cases, the ileum.
  • Colonoscopes – a colonoscope is an instrument designed to assess the entire colon (hence the term “colonoscopy” procedure) and in some cases, the terminal ileum.
  • Sigmoidoscopes – a sigmoidoscope is a relatively short endoscope designed to examine the distal part of the colon. Rigid versions of sigmoidoscopies are used mainly to evaluate a malignancy in the rectum and distal colon. It is also used to retrieve foreign-body material on these areas (rectum and distal colon). This procedure, involving the use of sigmoidoscope is called “sigmoidoscopy”.
  • Choledochoscopes – a choledochoscope is a miniature endoscope designed to examine the bile and pancreatic ducts.
  • Echoendoscopes – an echoendoscope is a type of an endoscope that is used to assess the layers of the gastrointestinal wall as well as extraluminal structures.


Generally, endoscopy is used to examine the gastrointestinal tract and find the reason behind signs and symptoms such as:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Anemia
  • Black stools
  • Blood in stools
  • Blood in urine
  • Chest pain or heartburn
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Indigestion
  • Infections in the GI tract
  • Lumps or tumors in the abdomen
  • Passing of black stools
  • Prolonged nausea and vomiting
  • Suspected peptic ulcer
  • Unexplained weight loss

Additionally, this technique is used to take tissue samples (called endoscopic biopsy) which will be checked in the laboratory for further examination. This procedure also helps your doctor or surgeon to see inside the gastrointestinal tract during a surgical procedure (example: removing tumors or gallstones)


Endoscopies are generally safe. However, as with any medical or surgical procedure, there are potential risks involved.

Although rare, the risks are commonly associated with the procedure itself causing mechanical trauma to the gastrointestinal tract, and is also due to the administration of sedation medications or anesthesia. It may include any of the following:

  • Bleeding where the tissue sample or biopsy was taken (rare and usually heals on its own)
  • Infection because of the introduction of an endoscope (the body detects it as a foreign material)
  • Persistent pain in the area examined
  • Reaction to sedation or anesthesia
  • Redness or swelling in the entry site
  • Tear or injury on the lining of the GI tract

These risks depend on the location of the endoscopy and your specific condition.

If you have questions about any of the risks listed above, speak with your doctor and mention all of your concerns. Before undergoing endoscopy, you and your doctor should weigh these possible risks (which rarely occurs) against the benefits with having the procedure.


Your doctor will talk to you about the procedure few weeks to days before so you will have an idea and overview of why is it necessary. He/she will give you complete instructions on how to prepare for your endoscopy.

The instruction listed below may vary depending on the type of endoscopy that you will be having. Your doctor will clarify the specific details with you.

Typically, preparations may involve:

Not eating 12 hours before the procedure. Most types of endoscopy might require you to be on NPO (Nothing Per Orem) status which means nothing by mouth. NPO is a medical term for not eating solid foods usually up to 12 hours prior to the procedure.

Taking laxatives or getting enemas. You may be given enemas or requested to take laxatives the night before the procedure to clean the areas that need to be examined. Laxatives and enemas will clean the gastrointestinal tract to allow your doctor full and clear view during the procedure.

Physical examination and history taking. Your doctor will perform a physical exam and will also ask questions about medical history (if you have been hospitalized before or if you have other health concerns) including prior surgeries. Be sure to inform your doctor about any supplements, vitamins, herbal medications or any drugs you are taking and alert your doctor if you have any allergies. You might need to stop certain medications like anti-platelet or anticoagulant medications to prevent bleeding during the procedure.

Talking to someone about driving you home or accompanying you after the procedure. You may want to arrange a ride home and plan for someone else to accompany after endoscopy, especially if you are given a sedative or anesthesia. Any of these medications can make you feel drowsy, forgetful, and unfocused. The effects of the anesthesia or sedative may last for up to 24 hours after the procedure.


You will be requested to rest for up 2 hours until the effects of the sedative (or anesthesia) wears off. The healthcare staff will monitor your vital signs, and your blood glucose may also be checked as well if you have diabetes.

After 24 hours, you can expect a full recovery from any type of endoscopy. Remember to follow the discharge instructions set by your doctor.


Some of the procedures may cause you to feel uncomfortable for up to 24 hours. If any problems persist, such as sore throat (gastroscopy), worsening abdominal pain or chest pain, you should contact your doctor.


This article is just an overview about Endoscopy. It might help you get an idea about the procedure but we recommend that you book an appointment with one of our doctors at Dallas to help you make an informed decision about the procedure. Call Pine Creek Medical Center at 214-231-CARE (2273).


• “Endoscopic Imaging.” University of Cyprus Biomedical Imaging and Applied Optics, Web. <>.

• “GI Endoscopes.” Report on Emerging Technology. ASGE | American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy | ASGE, Web. <>.

• Krans, Brian and Jacquelyn Cafasso. “Endoscopy: Uses, 13 Types, and More.” Healthline: Medical information and health advice you can trust., Web. <>.

• Norton, Ian and Michael Bourke. “Endoscopy Handbook.” GESA. Gastroenterological Society of Australia, Web. <>.

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What is a Colonoscopy? Sat, 08 Dec 2018 21:12:20 +0000 COLONOSCOPY: Examination of the Large Intestine and Rectum

Colonoscopy is a procedure that is performed by using a colonoscope – a flexible, long, narrow tube with a tiny camera and light to look inside the colon or large intestine and the rectum. This procedure can reveal problems inside the intestine such as swelling, irritation, masses, ulcer, or polyps, which is a tissue malformation that grows anywhere within the lining of the intestine.


Colonoscopy is usually done by a gastroenterologist – a doctor who specializes in diseases and problems in the digestive system.

It is performed to assess and identify the cause of problems such as:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Extreme weight loss
  • Bleeding from bowel
  • Unexplained changes in bowel habits

A colonoscopy is also used for colon cancer screening. It may help diagnose cancer, especially on the early stage when there is a better chance of intervening and curing the disease.


Your doctor will give you instructions on how to prepare a few days before your colonoscopy. It is essential that the colon is clean for the procedure so that the doctor can see important markers.

To prepare for your colonoscopy and prepare your bowel, you must:

Talk to your doctor.

As with other procedures, it would be necessary for you to talk to your doctor with regards to any allergies, medical conditions you have, and if you are taking vitamins, supplements or other prescribed medications.

Change your diet.

  • Two days before your colonoscopy, you may be advised by your doctor to be on a low fibre diet.
  • One day before, you will be asked not to eat any solid food.

Increase your fluid intake.

  • You will be advised to considerably increase your water or fluid intake two days before the procedure while you are on a low fiber diet.
  • One day before, your liquid intake should be clear fluids only like clear soups, fruit jelly, or tea.

Take the prescribed bowel preparation medication. 

You may be given a laxative medication to flush the colon for it to be free of stool.

Arrange for a drive home after the procedure. 

Talk to someone to drive you home on the day of the procedure because driving won’t be allowed for 24 hours after colonoscopy.


A colonoscopy procedure may be divided into two or three parts:

Introduction of Anesthesia

To start the procedure, a sedative (light anesthesia) is usually given.
You may be slightly aware, but you won’t know the entire process in detail.

The staff will make you feel as comfortable as possible. Your vital signs will be monitored during the whole procedure which may take about 20 to 45 minutes.

Examination of the Bowel

Once the anesthesia takes effect, and you are positioned on your left side, the colonoscope will be inserted through your anus towards your colon. The camera on the colonoscope will transmit a video image of the insides of your colon, to allow your doctor to examine the condition of your intestinal lining.

Once it reaches the small intestine’s opening, the colonoscope is slowly withdrawn, and the large intestine’s surface is carefully examined again.

Removal of Polyps, Tissue Samples or Biopsy

If polyps (small tissue growth attached to the lining of the bowel) are found during the colonoscopy, your doctor might remove them using specialized tools. These polyps may be harmless, but as a precaution and to prevent cancer, they are typically removed.

Small tissue samples may also be taken for biopsy to be examined thoroughly. This will allow your doctor to inspect it completely using a microscope in the laboratory for any signs of disease.


Immediately after the procedure, you will be transferred to the recovery room for monitoring. You will remain there for 1 to 2 hours until the anesthetic medication wears off.

When you wake up, it is normal to feel a little bloated due to the air that moved into your colon during the procedure, which will pass over in the next hour or two. You may be given a drink or light meal if you feel hungry.

Due to the anesthesia administered during your colonoscopy, it is strongly advised that you do not drive, ride on public transport alone, operate on any machinery, drink alcohol, or sign legal documents on the same day after the procedure. Also, have someone to stay at home with you.

After 24 hours, full recovery is expected. Follow the discharge instructions given by your physician.


Complications may occur, but they are rare and only very few people experience side-effects.
After the procedure, some people feel bloated. If a polyp was removed or a small tissue was taken, there might be minor bleeding. In some rare situations, the bowel lining may be injured or torn which will be repaired by the doctor. Reactions to the anesthesia are also possible, but like an injury to the stomach, it is very rare.

To know more about the benefits, risks, side-effects and other specific details on colonoscopy, book an appointment with your physician or call us at 214-231-CARE (2273). You can read more about Pine Creek Medical Center’s gastroenterology department for more info.



• “Colonoscopy.” San Francisco Surgery | General Surgery, Colorectal, Laparoscopic and Endocrine. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (, Web. <>.

• “Colonoscopy.” American College of Surgeons. Division of Education. Colonoscopy, Web. <>.

• “Information about Colonoscopy.” Gastroenterological Society of Australia (GESA),. Digestive Health Foundation, Web. <>.

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Minimally Invasive Foot Surgeries Thu, 01 Nov 2018 18:45:13 +0000 In the last few decades, the medical community has witnessed a significant development in new surgical methods to improve an even better patient care. With an increasing number of diseases, certain conditions, injuries, and various medical problems, we were prompted to expand and redefine surgical treatment techniques.

Foot surgeries are no different, with many patients’ request to minimize foot incisions and surgeons’ desire to reduce tissue trauma, foot surgeries were also redefined.

What is Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery?

A minimally invasive foot surgery is defined as a procedure that is carried out by using specialized surgical instruments through small incisions in the skin. Many surgeons had considered this concept since the early 1800s, but it was not until the 70’s that it was taken into action.

What Conditions Can Be Treated with Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery?

Here are some of the conditions that minimally invasive foot surgery can address:

  • Arthritic Joints
  • Bunions
  • Bone spurs
  • Calluses
  • Corns
  • Deformities
  • Diabetic ulcers
  • Flatfoot
  • Hammertoes
  • Heel spurs
  • Hyperpronation
  • Metatarsalgia
  • Nerve Entrapments
  • Neuromas
  • Plantar Fasciitis
  • Soft tissue lesions
  • Tendon Rupture

Minimally invasive foot surgery is a procedure that can be utilized for a permanent correction or surgical treatment of most foot and ankle conditions. For more problems and conditions that can be treated with minimally invasive foot surgery, speak with one of our specialists.

What Kinds of Anesthesia is Used for Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery?

Depending on the type of foot surgery, one of the following anesthesia may be used:

Local anesthesia (most common) – a local anesthesia is done by injecting a solution into the foot, ankle, toe, or near the knee depending on the area that needs to be accessed. This means that you may be awake during the procedure but your foot being operated on will be numb and will be draped or covered away from you.

A local anesthesia is an extremely safe medication for surgeries, but, like with any other medications, some people may be allergic or sensitive to them. Still, many patients undergoing surgery choose to have the surgery using local anesthesia.

Local anesthesia with sedation – a local anesthesia with sedation may be used in certain conditions as deemed necessary by the surgeon. This type of anesthesia requires the presence of an anesthetist during the procedure. If this is the kind of anesthesia that will be used for your operation, you may be asked not to eat or drink 6-8 hours prior to your foot surgery.

Before undergoing a foot surgery, the type of anesthesia will be discussed by the surgeon. Not all of these are offered in all hospitals, but the most common anesthetic for foot surgeries are local anesthesia.

Can Patients Go Home Same Day After Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery?

The answer is Yes. Most minimally invasive foot surgeries are “day case procedures” which means that patients can go home the same day after the procedure.

What are the Challenges and Issues relating to Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery?

While there are many advantages of using minimally invasive foot surgeries, there will always be some cases where the traditional open surgery is more appropriate. In some primary hospitals, minimally invasive surgeries may not be an option due to the unavailability of specialized instruments or equipment.
It is also important to note that not all surgeons are trained to perform minimally invasive surgeries. Always make sure that any type of minimally invasive foot surgery should be performed only by a sufficiently trained surgeon to carry out the procedure.

Why Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery?

Minimally invasive foot surgeries, as the name implies, result in far less or “minimal” trauma than other surgical methods. Decrease disruption and tissue trauma usually reduces the necessity for the use of pins, plates, screws, and plaster casting to heal ankle or foot pathology correctly.

This type of surgery can also reduce the amount of hospital stay and the recovery period of a patient. Aside from these benefits, minimally invasive foot surgeries can also reduce the risk of post-surgical complications, as well as post-operative pain and scarring.

Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery Pine Creek Medical Center

If you are experiencing chronic ankle and foot pain due to a sports injury, trauma, and other medical conditions, call our department at Pine Creek Medical Center today. Our physicians can talk to you about the solutions we can offer, be it minimally invasive surgery or other treatment options that may be beneficial for you.




  • Eric Bluman and Christopher Chiodo. Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Dec 1, 2015. Ebook.
  • “Information For Patients –” – Academy of Minimally Invasive Foot and Ankle Surgery. Web. <>.
  • “Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery — United Foot & Ankle Surgeons.” United Foot & Ankle Surgeons. Web. <>.
  • “Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery Chicopee | Foot Surgery Springfield, MA.” New England Orthopedic Surgeons Springfield | Hip Surgery East Longmeadow. Web. <>.
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Osteoarthritis of the Hand Tue, 30 Oct 2018 16:42:45 +0000 How Do I Know if I Have it?

Osteoarthritis is one of the most common conditions that affect the aging population. It is by far, the most common disease that affects the joints, causing stiffness and pain.

Although it may affect the joints of the knees and the back, the wrists and the hands are usually affected as well, contributing to the most common cause of disability in older adults.

What Causes Hand Osteoarthritis?

While osteoarthritis of the hand is related to aging, it has been associated with other various modifiable and non-modifiable factors such as lack of exercise, obesity, genetic predisposition, occupational injury, bone density issues, gender, and trauma.

How is Hand Osteoarthritis Diagnosed?

Hand osteoarthritis is currently diagnosed by a physical assessment in a doctor’s clinic, medical history taking, and, where necessary, an imaging such as radiology (x-ray) of the hand, an MRI scan, or arthroscopy. Other tests such as blood exams may be helpful as well including tests for joint fluids.

What are the Signs and Symptoms?

Osteoarthritis can affect any joint in the body, but if you think you have hand osteoarthritis, watch out for the following signs and symptoms:

  • Stiffness of the joints of the fingers or wrists – Joint stiffness may be experienced by individuals with hand osteoarthritis after a period of inactivity or in the morning.
  • Swelling in one or more joints in the hand inflammation, and swelling may occur after extended activity. This happens due to the excess fluid in the joints that are the result of the immune system’s response to the friction between bones and the bony outgrowths or osteophytes or nodes in the joint space.
  • A sound of bone rubbing against another bone of the hand – hands with osteoarthritis may produce grating or grinding sounds as the bone ends rub against each other
  • Mild but progressing pain of the affected joints – certain individuals feel no pain, but many have reported stiffness and pain that is usually worse at night which affects one or more joints.
  • Progressive and steady enlargement of one or more joints or deformity – characteristic findings in hand osteoarthritis include osteophyte formation (bony outgrowth linked with the degeneration of cartilage), degenerative cyst formation, joint space narrowing and possible subluxation (misalignment) of the thumbs or digits.
  • Difficulty of moving the fingers – fine motor activities become increasingly difficult as the inflammation, pain, and stiffness progress. Individuals with hand osteoarthritis may have trouble chopping vegetables, opening mails, eating finger foods, tying shoelaces, and buttoning clothes.
  • Loss of hand function – functional limitations of the hand may occur due to any of the symptoms or a combination listed above including pain, weak grasp, as well as stiffness during finger movement.


Treatment of hand osteoarthritis is designed to relieve the pain, reduce swelling, and restore hand function. Medications such as analgesics and anti-inflammatories may be of benefit to most individuals. Brief periods of rest and appropriate exercise may help in between arthritis flare-ups. Patients may also use hand, wrist, or finger splints during certain activities or at night. If mild to moderate inflammation is present, heat application such as paraffin baths or warm wax might help. But for severe swelling, cold modalities may be more beneficial.

If you have hand osteoarthritis, the function of the fingers should be maintained as productively as possible, as well as the use of the hand.

Cortisone injections may be used to relieve symptoms but won’t cure arthritis if the primary cause is not addressed. Surgery is indicated when most of the conservative treatments fail. It might be warranted in some cases if there is too much pain on the hand or fingers or there is too little hand function.

At Pine Creek Medical Center, the goal is to restore as much function as possible and eradicate or relieve and reduce pain to a tolerable level. The type of treatment for your hand osteoarthritis depends on the severity of the condition, your activities, what particular joints are involved, and your own needs. Our highly-experienced physicians can help you assess, diagnose, and decide which type of treatment is the most appropriate for you.




  • “Hand Osteoarthritis.” Dr Leo M Rozmaryn – Orthopaedic Surgeon Rockville MD | Hand Surgeon. Web. <>.
  • “Osteoarthritis of the Hands, Fingers and/or Wrists.” MyJointPain | Welcome. Web. <>.
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  • “Osteoarthritis Symptoms.” Arthritis Foundation | Symptoms Treatments | Prevention Tips | Pain Relief Advice. Web. <>.
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5 Most Common Surgeries for Football Injury Tue, 30 Oct 2018 16:16:08 +0000 Football is one of the most common team sports that is played on nearly every continent. Along with the increasing number of new players, the number of reported injuries increase as well.

In the United States, almost 30 million kids and teenagers participate in some form of team sports, and more than 11.67% of the total participants get injured each year. The higher rates of these injuries occur in sports that involve collisions and contact such as football, basketball, and other contact team sports.

Football and Sports Injuries

While playing football, any injury can happen. In fact, almost every move in a football game can result in some kind of an injury due to tackling, rushing, running, catching and throwing of the football. Aside from these causes, sudden impact and overuse can also result in an injury.

Most Common Football Injuries

Here are the most common football injuries:

Knee Injuries

  • ACL Tear or Sprain

Anterior Cruciate Ligament, short for ACL is a ligament located in the middle of the knee. This ligament prevents the shin bone from moving out and sliding out towards the front of the thigh bone.

An injury to the ACL is usually caused by trauma to the shin. This kind of injury is common to soccer and football players and is considered as the most common ligamentous injury, which accounts for 200,000 injuries annually in the United States.

  • Meniscus Tears

A meniscus is a cartilage in the knee that serves as a shock absorber and cushion between the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone). It also helps the knee during weight-bearing.

A tear or damage in the meniscus can occur when the knee receives a direct blow, or when it is forcefully twisted.

Ankle Injuries

  • Torn Ankle Ligaments

Football players run back and forth the field. Whether cutting side to side or tackling other players or jumping to catch a ball, they can easily get injured in the ankle from a direct trauma or wrong twisting of the ankle joint.

Ankle sprains and injuries involve a disruption on the fibers of the lateral ankle ligaments – the tissue fibers that stabilize the ankle. This kind of injury usually results from a twisting injury.

Shoulder Injuries

  • Labral Injury

The shoulder joint is composed of three bones: the shoulder blade (scapula), the collarbone (clavicle), and the upper arm bone (the humerus). This upper arm bone called humerus rests its head on a socket in the shoulder blade. To stabilize these parts together, a soft fibrous tissue called the ‘labrum’ surrounds the socket. It also serves as a connection/attachment site for other several ligaments.

Injuries to the labrum, which can be in a form of lesion or tear (collectively termed as labral injuries) can occur from repetitive shoulder motion or acute blow or trauma to the shoulder. These injuries can happen secondary to forceful overhead movements, a direct blow to the shoulder, sudden pulling of the shoulder, or falling on the ground with an outstretched arm.

Hip Injuries

  • The hip joint is composed of a socket (the acetabulum) and the thigh bone (the femur). The hip is a stable joint because of a fibrocartilaginous part called the ‘labrum’ that surrounds the socket. It functions to stabilize, seal, and enhance the joint.

Athletes, especially football players, who are exposed to various extreme movements, are at risk of injuring these structures. Due to frequent running, immediate stopping, sudden pivoting, the labrum can tear easily.

Top 5 Surgeries for Football Injury

After getting familiar with the five most common injuries that athletes or any football player can have, let us also discuss the five most common surgeries for a football injury:

  1. Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction

ACL reconstruction surgery involves the use of a graft to ‘reconstruct’ and repair the damage on the ACL ligament. The most common type of graft is one that uses own parts of the body such as hamstring tendons or patellar tendons (from the kneecap). The surgery is done by removing and replacing the torn ligament with the graft.

It is an outpatient procedure that is performed by a surgeon who specializes in joint and bone surgeries. It is accomplished by creating small incisions on the knee joint.

  1. Partial Meniscectomy

Partial Meniscectomy is a surgical procedure that involves removal of the torn or damaged portion of the meniscus which causes pain and inflammation. Although some cases of meniscus tear/injury can be sewn back together, most cases require partial removal of the torn meniscus.

Currently, with the use of smaller surgical instruments, partial meniscectomy can be performed by using a surgical scissor placed through a small arthroscopic portal.

  1. Lateral Ankle Ligament Repair/Reconstruction

Lateral Ankle Ligament Repair is a common surgery for those who have injuries in the ankle ligaments that are not responsive to non-invasive treatments. For athletes who have developed lateral ankle instability, this procedure can also be beneficial.

It is done under a general or a regional anesthesia, and it is typically an outpatient procedure. Several techniques can be used for this surgery depending on the condition of the ankle ligaments. Most of the time, a repair is done by stitching the ligaments to be made stronger using the support of other tissues. In other cases, tendons may be used to take the place of torn ankle ligaments.

  1. Arthroscopic shoulder labral repair

Arthroscopic shoulder labral repair, also known as shoulder arthroscopy is a procedure that uses a specialized camera to view the shoulder joints through tiny incisions. With the use of the camera, the surgeon is able to view the shoulder bones and joints in detail, without creating a large cut or incision in the skin. Through the incisions, surgical instruments are also used to repair the labral tear or injury.

In most cases, patients can go home the same day of the surgery. A sling might be prescribed which is to be worn for the first three days. Like other surgeries that involve bones and joints, physical therapy may be advised as well.

  1. Arthroscopic Hip Labral Repair

Arthroscopic Hip Labral Repair is almost the same as arthroscopic shoulder labral repair. The only difference is that the body part being repaired is on the hip and not in the shoulder.

To perform this procedure, Arthroscopic Hip Labral Repair (also known as Hip Arthroscopy), small incisions are created. Then, the surgeon will access the damaged labrum of the hip by using specialized surgical instruments. He or she then repairs the torn labrum improving the hip joint function.




  • ” ACL reconstruction – Mayo Clinic.” Mayo Clinic – Mayo Clinic. <>.
  • “Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction – Wikipedia.” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  <>.
  • Arthroscopic Labral Surgery.” Orthopaedic Surgery Cincinnati | Sport Medicine | Sports Injury.  <>.
  • “Arthroscopic Labrum Repair of the Shoulder (SLAP) .” Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts – Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.  <>.
  • Evans, Stephanie, Justin Shaginaw, and Arthur Bartolozzi. “ACL RECONSTRUCTION ‐ IT’S ALL ABOUT TIMING.” International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy2 (2014): 268–273. Print.
  • “Football Injuries.” org – The Official Site of the NCAA.Web. <>.
  • “Hip Arthroscopy – OrthoInfo – AAOS.” Web. <>.
  • “Lateral Ankle Ligament Reconstruction.” Web. <>.
  • “Medscape Log In .” Medscape Drugs & Diseases – Comprehensive peer-reviewed medical condition, surgery, and clinical procedure articles with symptoms, diagnosis, staging, treatment, drugs and medications, prognosis, follow-up, and pictures.  <>.
  • “Meniscus Tear Repair Surgery: What To Expect & Recovery Time.” WebMD – Better information. Better health. <>.
  • “Partial meniscectomy: Frequently asked questions | Dr. David Geier – Sports Medicine Simplified.” Home | Dr. David Geier – Sports Medicine Simplified.  <>.
  • “Rehabilitation Guidelines for Hip Arthroscopy Procedures.” Home | UW Health | Madison, WI.  <>.
  • “Shoulder Arthroscopy – OrthoInfo – AAOS.” Web. <>.
  • ” Sports Injury Statistics | Johns Hopkins Medicine Health Library.” Johns Hopkins Medicine, based in Baltimore, Maryland. <,P02787>.
  • “Surgery for Hip Labral Tears | NYU Langone Health.” Patient Care at NYU Langone Health.  <>.
  • “5 Common Football Injuries.” Better Braces For Injuries | The Sports Bracing & Therapy Experts | Free Shipping.  <>.
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Can Sinus Surgery Help? Thu, 04 Oct 2018 17:33:26 +0000 Asthma, Sinusitis, and Allergies: Can Sinus Surgery Help?

In the recent years, there has been increasing cases of allergies, asthma, and sinus problems. While its primary cause is still unknown, many health professionals suspect that it might be due to the environment that is getting more and more polluted.

Some, however, debate that these conditions have to do with many people being ‘too clean’ to the point that they become sensitive to little amount of dirt or allergens. So, when they get exposed to it, the immune system immediately recognizes it as a ‘foreign substance’ and quickly develops a defensive reaction towards it.

Although it may, or may not be the real cause, certain strategies were developed to prevent the increasing number of asthmas, allergies, and sinusitis.

Asthma, Sinusitis, and Allergies

Allergies occur when an individual’s immune system reacts to the substances (allergens) in the environment that might be harmless to other people. These substances include dust, pollens, animal dander, and dust mite excretions. People with allergies to any of these allergens can develop an immune reaction called an ‘allergic reaction.’

When bad allergies are not treated immediately, they can lead to asthma or chronic sinusitis, which is the inflammation of the sinuses. These conditions cause airway problems.

What is a Sinus Surgery?

Unlike other forms of surgery, where a non-functioning part or a diseased organ is removed; sinus surgery involves the creation and re-routing of the pathways in the sinuses.

The old techniques for sinus surgery involve removal of the diseased or damaged sinus lining and tissues to improve the natural drainage of mucus, pus, and other exudates. This is done by creating a drainage pathway for the infected material to be removed and drained out from the sinus cavities.

Nowadays, surgeons employ the use of endoscopic techniques to allow better visualization without the need for a large external incision. As a result, there is less bleeding, swelling, discomfort, pain, and a faster recovery.

Sinus Surgery: How Does it Help?

Recent developments and discoveries in treatment techniques have proven that early intervention reduces the risk of disease progression. There are also many pieces of evidence that verify the many benefits of sinus surgery.

Some of the many advantages include:

  • Reduced pain
  • Less facial pressure
  • Decreased risk for infections
  • Better airway conditions
  • Prevention of inflammation
  • Fewer chances of having nasal drainage
  • Improved quality of life

While sinus surgeries do not necessarily cure someone from being allergic to specific allergens, they do help by opening up airways and help the sinuses be drained of certain exudates such as pus or mucus before the condition becomes worse from infection.


It cannot be stressed more strongly that management and care after surgery are as equally important as the process of the operation itself. Surgeons, physicians, and all the other healthcare staff can only do as much. Like with any other type of surgical procedure, it is always up to the patient to share on how the treatment plan goes because it is part of the patients’ responsibility as well.

When to Have Sinus Surgery

Even though sinus surgery can help you with your allergies, chronic sinusitis, or asthma, we recommend you to use conservative treatments like medications to treat your problems first. If all of the non-invasive treatments failed, or if they are not a good solution to your health concern, then sinus surgery can be an excellent treatment method. Remember, always try non-invasive first before going into any surgery.

In some cases, however, the sooner some individuals take this step (sinus surgery), the fewer health problems and complications arise due to the allergies. For example, if asthma causes chronic fatigue, secondary to being unable to sleep from blocked sinuses, you can talk to your physician and try to consider getting a sinus surgery.

Sinus Surgery at Pine Creek Medical Center

To figure out if you should have sinus surgery, contact Pine Creek Medical Center today. Book an appointment with any of our asthma, sinus, or allergy specialist so we can have your problems taken care of! Our physicians are highly trained to diagnose, manage, and treat any Dallas allergies.




  • “Allergen – Wikipedia.” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  <>.
  • “Asthma and Sinus Surgery – Asthma Center – Everyday Health.” Everyday Health: Trusted Medical Information, Expert Health Advice, News, Tools, and Resources.  <>.
  • “Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Symptoms, Risks & Complications.”Web. <>.
  • “Top 4 Benefits of Sinus Surgery – New York, NY Sinus Surgeon.” Top 4 Benefits of Sinus Surgery – New York, NY Sinus Surgeon.  <Https:// >.
  • “What is allergy? – Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA).” Home – Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA).  <>.
  • “Will Sinus Surgery Help My Allergies? – American Sinus Institute.” Balloon Sinuplasty – American Sinus Institute – San Antonio & Houston, TX.  <>.
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Appendectomy Thu, 23 Aug 2018 19:46:47 +0000 What is the Appendix?

The human appendix is a small, 3 to 4-inch tube attached to the cecum – the junction that connects the small bowel (intestine) to the large intestine. It is a worm-like appendage (hence the term appendix), that is also termed as ‘cecal appendix’ or ‘vermiform appendix.’

Do I Need My Appendix?

The function of the appendix has always been a topic for debate. Most of us have heard the word “appendicitis,’ and yet, many people are still unaware of the role that it plays in our digestive system.

Some researchers believed that the appendix of our primitive ancestors served as an organ to digest extra roughage. However, this is only a speculation based on the fact that early humans consumed barks of trees and other plants.

According to Oklahoma State University Physiology Professor Loren G. Martin, as published in Scientific American, the human appendix has a function, contrary to popular belief. He stated that our appendix has a role during fetal development. Around 11 weeks, the appendix appears to be endocrine cells, which is responsible for the production of amines and hormones—assisting homeostasis in the body of the fetus.

What is an Appendectomy?

Appendectomy is a surgical procedure performed by experts to remove an inflamed appendix due to appendicitis. An infected appendix can perforate (burst) anytime and release stool or bacteria in the abdominal cavity.

Signs and symptoms of Appendectomy may include:

  • Pain in the abdomen which usually begins at the umbilical area that extends to the lower right side
  • Loss of appetite
  • Increased pressure and pain when walking
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Constipation or diarrhea
  • Difficulty standing straight

Why Undergo an Appendectomy?

Medication and therapy won’t cure an infected appendix. The only treatment option that can treat appendicitis is an appendectomy. This procedure will not affect long-term health even if it involves removal of the appendix.

It is better to remove the appendix while in the early stages of the disease than wait before it gets worse. If untreated, the appendix will perforate (burst) and release bacteria and other contents into the abdominal cavity, where the intestines and other digestive organs are located. Infection of the abdominal cavity can result in severe health issues.

What Happens Before an Appendectomy?

As with any surgical procedure, a thorough assessment and evaluation are needed before undergoing an appendectomy. Be sure to tell your nurse or physician if you have any allergies. Your surgeon will talk to you regarding the procedure, as well as expectations and possible complications.

What Happens During an Appendectomy?

You may be given intravenous fluids and certain antibiotics during the surgery. Your anesthesiologist and surgeon will also give you anesthetic medication to keep you sedated and unconscious during the entire procedure. This will also keep you pain-free, so you won’t get hurt when the surgeon starts cutting and removing your appendix.

Appendectomy can be done as:

  • Open Appendectomy – Also known as open surgery. This is performed by creating an incision that is about 3 inches long in the lower right side of the abdomen.
  • Laparoscopic Appendectomy – In a laparoscopic appendectomy, only small incisions are created to remove the appendix. A laparoscope (tiny tube with a built-in camera) is inserted through the incision. The camera helps the surgeon to view and monitor the abdominal contents. It will also serve as a guide during the

Possible Risks of an Appendectomy

Appendectomy is usually a safe procedure. But, like other surgical procedures, they have some risks such as:

  • Bleeding or infection on the incision site
  • Abscess or swelling in the abdomen
  • Bowel blockage
  • Leakage of bowel material
  • Hernia at the incision site
  • Paralytic ileus or slowness of bowel muscles
  • Risk of premature delivery (for pregnant individuals)
  • Death

What Happens After an Appendectomy?

The incisions will be closed either with staples or stitches. You may also have a temporary drainage apparatus in the abdomen. In most cases, patients can go home 1-day post laparoscopic/open appendectomy if there are no complications. If the appendix burst, your hospital stay may be extended.

Follow up visits may be scheduled in 1 to 2 weeks, depending on your surgeon/physician’s discretion.

Appendectomy at Pine Creek Medical Center

Having an appendectomy is the best way to treat infection and inflammation of the appendix. The danger of not treating your appendicitis is life-threatening. Therefore, if you suspect that you have an inflamed appendix, immediately call your family physician or book with one at Pine Creek Medical Center. You can entrust your appendectomy to our board-certified and highly-skilled surgeons.



  • “Appendectomy Diagnosis and Surgery.” My HealtheVet Veterans Health Library.  <>.
  • “Appendectomy Surgical Removal of the Appendix.” American College of Surgeons.  <>.
  • Johnson, Priya. “Appendix Function.” Wasatch County School District / Overview.  <>.
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Cholecystectomy Thu, 23 Aug 2018 19:38:04 +0000 What is the Gallbladder?

The human gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located at the upper-right side of the abdomen hiding under the liver. It stores a combination of fluids, some fats, cholesterol, and the bile.

How Does the Gallbladder Work?

The gallbladder’s principal function is to store bile, a substance that helps the digestive system in breaking down fats from the food we eat. The liver produces this substance (the bile) and sends them to the gallbladder for storage. Each day, about 3 to 5 cups of bile is produced by the liver. When we eat fatty cuts of pork, beef, dark chicken meat or high-fat dairy foods, the gallbladder squeezes out the stored bile through its small ducts towards the small intestine.

What is a Cholecystectomy?

Cholecystectomy is a procedure used to remove a diseased/ non-functioning/ infected, or sick gallbladder. It is also done to surgically remove a gallbladder with gallstones to stop pain or infection.

Why Undergo a Cholecystectomy?

Gallbladder stones are very common these days, and cholecystectomy is often the only solution to this problem. Gallstones are fragments formed from bile that varies in shape, size, and color.  They may cause infection of the gallbladder (Cholecystitis), abdominal tenderness, and pain that usually starts near the belly button or the right side of the abdomen.

Cholecystectomy is performed to treat gallstones and prevent any complications that they may cause. Your surgeon may suggest cholecystectomy if there is:

  • Gallbladder inflammation (Cholecystitis)
  • Gallstones in your gallbladder (Cholelithiasis)
  • Gallstones in your bile duct (Choledocholithiasis)
  • Gallstones causing inflammation of the pancreas (Pancreatitis)

What Happens Before a Cholecystectomy?

To be sure of the diagnosis and the need for gallbladder removal, your physician will ask you about the pain and other stomach problems that you may feel. He/she will also do a physical assessment or request further testing.

Additional tests may include any of the following: complete blood count, blood chemistry, coagulation profile, ultrasound, Hepatobiliary scan, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and MRI.

If you have other medical conditions or if you are taking any medications, be sure to inform your doctor to avoid complications.

What Happens During a Cholecystectomy?

You will be brought to the surgical unit/operating room and will be put under general anesthesia.

Currently, there are two main techniques to perform a cholecystectomy:

  • Open Cholecystectomy – This is done by creating a 6-inch incision along the abdomen’s upper right side. Then, the surgeon will cut through the muscles and the fat through the gallbladder. The gallbladder will be removed, and the remaining ducts attached to it will be clamped off. After that, the incision will be sutured or stapled closed. In some cases, 1 – 2 small drainage tubes may be placed in the abdomen to allow bile drainage that will be removed before discharge from the hospital.
  • Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy – Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy is a technique done by making small holes (keyholes) or incisions in the abdomen.

Typically, the surgeon inflates the abdomen with carbon dioxide to allow visualization of the internal organs. It is accomplished by placing hollow tubes or small ports in the incision. A lighted camera is used, and surgical instruments are inserted through the ports. Once the gallbladder is cut and removed, sutures or surgical glue/clips will be used to close the incisions.

Possible Risks of a Cholecystectomy

Some of the risks and complications of a laparoscopic or an open cholecystectomy include:

  • Wound Infection
  • Bleeding
  • Pneumonia
  • Heart Complication
  • Blood Clots
  • Urinary Tract Infection
  • Bile Leakage
  • Bile duct injury
  • Return to surgery
  • Pancreatitis
  • Retained Stone at common bile duct
  • Pregnancy complication/fetal distress/premature labor
  • Pneumonia
  • Injury to the nearby organs or other structures
  • Death

What Happens After a Cholecystectomy?

The procedure itself may cause you to feel uncomfortable or sore for a couple of days. You may also experience:

Pain on the surgical site – This may be felt once the effects of the anesthesia are gone. However, it is normal for any surgical procedures because the surgical wound/incision causes minimal tissue damage. To alleviate pain, your physician may prescribe pain medications as well as non-pharmacologic approaches to pain management. Because pain varies from individual to another, doses may differ per case.

Be sure to inform your surgeon if your medication doesn’t help in controlling your pain. In most cases, pain should improve each day after the operation.

Constipation – Decreased activity, anesthesia, and pain medications can contribute to the difficulty of emptying the bowels.

Be sure to drink 8-10 glasses of fluid each day (unless contraindicated) and eat vegetables, fruits, and grains because these foods are high in fiber. A diet high in fiber helps in managing constipation. Your doctor may also prescribe stool softeners and fiber supplements like Metamucil if necessary.

When to Contact Your Surgeon

Contact your surgeon/physician if you experience the following after your cholecystectomy:

  • Pain that worsens
  • Pain that doesn’t go away
  • Hyperthermia (fever) more than 101°F or 38.3°C
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Inability to eat properly
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin)
  • Foul smelling drainage from the incision site
  • Swelling and bleeding on from the wound site
  • No bowel movement 2-3 days post operation


You may be advised to do deep breathing exercises to prevent complications after surgery, such as pneumonia, blood clots, or fluid accumulation in the lungs.

Most patients can resume normal activities after a few days. Others go back to work within a week or two and return to exercise after one month.

Cholecystectomy at Pine Creek Medical Center

This information about cholecystectomy is published to offer education and guidance about the surgical procedure. This article is not intended to replace a discussion with a board-certified gallbladder specialist/surgeon who is trained in managing your condition. It is also important to note that each case is different, and the outcome of any surgical procedure depends on an individual’s general condition.

Talk to your physician or book an appointment with one at Pine Creek Medical Center. You can entrust your cholecystectomy to our highly-skilled surgeons and physicians.



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  • “Cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal) – Mayo Clinic.” Mayo Clinic – Mayo Clinic.  <>.
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  • “Gallstones – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic.” Mayo Clinic – Mayo Clinic.  <>.
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