Pine Creek Medical Center Dallas Medical Center Fri, 11 May 2018 12:26:13 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Hip Replacement Surgery Fri, 20 Apr 2018 18:07:57 +0000 The hips, like many other joints and parts of the body, wear out with use and age. These hips could also be victims of debilitating and very painful conditions such as injuries, arthritis and other diseases.

There are lots of professionals with expertise in helping to treat hip related problems as treatment of hip conditions are geared towards helping you get back towards a healthy and active lifestyle. These are made possible by various routes of treatment including advanced hip surgery techniques.

People who have a bone fracture caused by high impact accidents or injuries, people who have arthritis or people who have other bone-related problems could need hip replacement surgery. However, the decision to have hip replacement surgery need be a cooperative decision made by you, your doctor, your family and your orthopedic surgeon.

Types of Hip Replacement Surgery

Hip replacement surgery may be recommended for people who have failed nonoperative care, disabling pain, arthritic or diseased hip joints, reduced diminution and function of daily activities. There are two types of hip replacement surgery, and they are;

  • Partial hip replacement surgery

This involves the removal of the diseased or fractured ball and socket in the hip and replacing it with an artificial metal ball which will be attached to a stem (an artificial prosthetic joint). This type of hip replacement surgery is often recommended after a fracture or for patients who have diseased proximal humerus or femur with no involvement in the hip and isolated arthritis.

  • Total hip replacement surgery

It could also be done by placing an artificial metal or plastic cup into a hip socket after the damaged cartilage has been removed. This is will be most likely recommended as a better option for patients with disease or arthritis involving the ball and socket of the hip.


Hip pain and discomfort can be diagnosed often based on your symptoms and the abnormal position of the hip and leg. However an X-ray will usually confirm a fracture and when it doesn’t, a bone scan or MRI will be used to look for small hairline fractures.

Your question might then be, who is a candidate for hip replacement surgery? The answer is simple, recommendations for surgery are based most importantly on the severity of the pain and disability the patient has and not the patient’s age. There is really no absolute weight or age restrictions for having an hip replacement surgery. Orthopedic surgeons often evaluate patients individually but most people who undergo these surgical procedures are usually in the range of 50-80 years. Hip replacement surgery has been performed successfully for patients of all ages, from elderly patients with degenerative arthritis to young teenagers with juvenile arthritis.

There a different reasons why your doctor may recommend that you have an hip replacement surgery and a few of them include

  • Hip pain that reduces ability to carry out everyday activities such as bending or walking significantly
  • Inadequate relief of pain by walking supports, anti-inflammatory drugs, or physical therapy.
  • When patient hip pains that lingers even while resting both during the day or at night
  • Stiffness of the hip that limits movement
General Bone Fracture Care Fri, 20 Apr 2018 18:03:47 +0000 When a bone experiences an impact that results in a crack or break in the length of the bone, it is called fracture. Fractures can either be a complete fracture or incomplete fracture. Fractures are grouped into open and closed fractures.

An open fracture is as a result of heavy or profound wound which leaves the bone seeable from within the skin. This type of fracture is also called compound fracture. This mostly occurs as a result of high impact from external environment to the bone; examples are automobile crash, high impact fall, etc.

A closed fracture leaves the skin uninjured, but the bone is effectively or fairly damaged. This might happen as a result of a mini contact with the bone. This is also known as simple fracture.

Medical conditions like cancer, osteoporosis and osteogenesis imperfecta may also present as a causative agent for bone fractures as they de-energize the bones.

There are some fractures and how they are presented:

  • A type of fracture where a part of the bone is damaged which then makes the other end of the bone to be bent is called Greenstick fracture. The earlier named type of fracture is peculiar to children.
  • When the damage was done to the bone is in a direct line and has no deviation it is referred to as transverse fracture.
  • When the type of fracture is as a result of bone twisting, it is called spiral fracture.
  • In a case where the bone has been crushed which then results in a flat appearance of the bone then it is called compression fracture.

Symptoms of Fracture

There are some certain symptoms that may be presented as a result of fracture, however; symptoms may vary according to individuals. The affected individual may suffer from pain, bloating, disfigurement in the damaged part or having challenges moving the affected part. It is advised to, however, seek medical consultations as symptoms may mimic plenty other medical problems.

Diagnosis of Fracture

The patient’s medical past time will be of great importance in this process also the cause of the injury coupled with physical examination will be carried out. Furthermore, there are other procedures for diagnosing fracture:

  • The use of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scan: this uses ultra-high imaging technique with the use of computers to create high definition and detailed picture of the internal body.
  • The use of X-ray: this procedure employs electromagnetic radiation to create pictures of the internal body into the film.
  • The use of CT (Computed Tomography) scan: this employs the aggregation of computer tech and X-ray to create axile or flat images (which is referred to as slices) of the body. This type of scan gives elaborate images of the bone or any body part.

Treatment of Fractures

Treatments are often best chosen by your medical examiner as he or she will determine treatment based on age, health history, the kind of fracture, its location, severity and the way the patient react to some medications and therapy.

Fracture management may include:

  • Medicinal application to control the pain
  • Cast or splint technique is employed to get the bones back into alignment.
  • The use of traction to coerce or stretch a particular part of the body including the tendons and muscles surrounding the damaged bone to create alignment of the damaged bone and also aid healing process.
  • Surgery is also a process carried out to fix some kinds of fracture by using this technique to put the damaged bones into its appropriate location. The use of rods, metals, and pins are sometimes employed both internally and externally to keep the damaged fragments of the bones in its appropriate
Common Throat Disorders Fri, 20 Apr 2018 17:59:33 +0000 Your throat serves as a medium for transporting food to your esophagus, and air into your larynx and windpipe. This makes the throat a vital part of the human body. Technically, the name given to the throat is called pharynx.

Throat problems are common and you have probably suffered from a sore throat at some point in your life. Typically, viral infections are the cause of disease. However, causes of throat disorders may include infection with strep bacteria, allergies, and leaking of the stomach acids that get back into the esophagus termed GERD.

Most throat disorders are minor, and often they disappear on their own, while in some cases, they may require treatments. Well, if procedures will be applied, it will primarily depend on the particular disorder that a person is experiencing.

Acid Reflux and GERD

Acid reflux is known as the reverse flow of stomach acid back into the esophagus. This tube connects both the throat and the stomach, also known as gastroesophageal reflux. Acid reflux progresses to GERD which is a more severe form of Acid reflux.


This occurs when the immune system reacts to any allergy triggers such as pet dander, grass, and pollen.

Cough and Throat Clearing

Conditions that occur in a cough and throat clearing are allergic rhinitis, chronic sinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux and other esophageal lesions.

Lymph Nodes

Lymph nodes, also called lymph glands are a part of the lymphatic system which is a component of the body’s immune system. The groups of lymph nodes include small, soft nodules of tissue or bean-shaped.


Phlegm is that sticky, thick stuff that hangs around the back of one’s throat when one is sick. The mucous membrane enables phlegm to protect and support ones respiratory system.

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux

This is a condition that occurs in a person who is suffering from GERD ( Gastroesophageal reflux disease). This happens when acid travels up the esophagus and when the acid gets to the throat it results in Laryngopharyngeal Reflux.

Post-Nasal Drip

When The nasal mucosa is producing excess mucus, then post nasal drip occurs. This excess mucus occurs in the throat or at the back of the nose.

Sore Throat

Sore throat is the scratching, pain, and irritation that worsen when one swallows or talk. The common causes of a sore throat is a viral infection.

Tonsillitis and Tonsil Stones

Tonsillitis and tonsil stones formed when trapped debris calcifies or hardens. This happens in people who have intense inflammation in their tonsils or continuous bout of tonsillitis.

Throat Cancer

This includes cancerous tumors that occur in one’s throat, tonsils or voice box. It affects epiglottis which acts as a lid to your windpipe.

Vocal Cord Dysfunction

VCD occurs when the vocal cords or the voice box fails to open correctly. Because of the similarities of symptoms, it is mostly confused with Asthma.


Doctors are expected to carry out many tests to confirm your cases. The diagnosis originates with the series of questions your doctor will first ask you.

Your doctor will first seek for your symptoms; after that, a light will be used to check the back of your throat to investigate white spots, swelling, and redness. Additionally, your doctor may have to feel the sides of your neck for traces of swollen glands. Further diagnostic includes:

  • Strep Throat Test
  • Throat Culture
  • X-ray Examinations: For neck.


Regardless of the type of disorder, symptoms may include any of the following. They include feeling:

  • Irritated
  • Raw
  • Scratchy
  • Dry
  • Tender

Furthermore, pain might be accompanied when one swallows or talk. There might also be white patches forming on the tonsils. There can also be:

  • Cough
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Sneezing
  • Running nose
  • Nasal congestion body aches
  • Hoarse voice
  • Swollen glands in the neck
  • Appetite loss


In treating common throat disorders, there are two basic approaches. They include:

Medicines and home remedies.

  • Medicines: 
  1. Over-the-counter medications: Acetaminophen, aspirin, and ibuprofen.
  2. Sore Throat Remedies: Marshmallow roots, slippery elm, and licorice root.
  • Antacids: Such as Rolaids, tum, e.t.c.
  1. Proton Pump Inhibitors: omeprazole and lansoprazole
  • Home Remedies:
  1. Gargle mixture of warm water and a teaspoonful of salt.
  2. Rest.
  3. Herbal teas.
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Common Nose Disorders Fri, 20 Apr 2018 17:51:53 +0000 It is well said that your nose is very crucial to your health. It filters the air you breathe, removing dust, germs, and irritants. It warms and moistens the air to keep your lungs and tubes that lead to them from drying out. The common cold can disrupt your natural flow of air in and out your nostril. The nose is a sensitive facial feature that can detect quickly unpleasant smells. Sometimes, some medical conditions can lead to narrowing of the nasal airway and infections. In some cases, pollen, ragweed, and grass can enter the nose and trigger certain nasal conditions.

Some of the problems associated with common nose disorder aside from common cold include:

  • Deviated septum: Movements of the wall which leads to division of the nasal cavity into halves. In some cases, a deviated septum occurs during fetal development and is apparent at birth.
  • Nasal polyps: this is the development of soft growths on the lining of the nose or sinuses. They result from severe inflammation due to asthma, recurring infection, allergies, drug sensitivity or certain immune disorders.
  • Bleeding in the nose: it is often caused due to the location of the nose on the face, and the vast amount of blood vessels in the nose. The most common causes of nosebleeds are drying of the nasal membranes and nose One way to prevent nose bleeding is by properly lubricating the nasal passages and not picking the nose.
  • Rhinitis: it is the inflammation of the nose and sinuses sometimes caused by The inflammation is caused by viruses, bacteria, irritants or allergens. One of the signs that indicate rhinitis a runny nose.
  • Nasal fractures, also known as a broken nose. Symptoms may include, bleeding, swelling, bruising, and an inability to breathe through the nose.


Your doctor might opt for one of these diagnosis options after series of questions about your symptoms must have been asked:

Nasal endoscopy: this is actualized with the use of a  narrow tube with a lighted magnifying lens which is to be guided through your nasal cavity.

Imaging studies: this option is to determine the size and location of polyps in the sinuses area and also to examine the extent of inflammation using a computerized tomography.


The whole essence of treating nasal polyps is to reduce their size or eliminate them. On the first approach, medications are usually prescribed and afterwards, is a suggestion for surgery, but might not be necessary in all cases.


Nasal polyp treatment usually starts with drugs, which can make even large polyps shrink or disappear. Drug treatments may include:

Nasal corticosteroids: It is a spray used to shrink or eliminate polyps. Nasal corticosteroids include fluticasone (Flonase, Veramyst), budesonide (Rhinocort), flunisolide, mometasone (Nasonex), etc.

Other medications may include:

  • Antihistamines to treat allergies and antibiotics to treat a chronic or recurring infection.
  • Aspirin desensitization for patients with nasal polyps and aspirin sensitivity.


In cases where drug treatment doesn’t kill nasal polyps, your doctor may prescribe an endoscopic surgery. This option is carried out simply by inserting a small tube with a magnifying lens or tiny camera (endoscope) into your nostrils and guides it into your sinus cavities.

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Common Ear Disorders Fri, 20 Apr 2018 17:47:22 +0000 Balancing in humans is aided by the ear, and any abnormal condition can have a chronic and lasting effect. The ear, which is divided into three segments (the external, the middle and the inner), can be affected by CED’s which results in fluid buildup in the ear or inflammation, both that can affect balance. Permanent blockage of the ear occurs when the ear becomes affected by some common ear disease that remains untreated.

In this article, we are going to explore six of those common ear disorders, seeing how to diagnose them and their treatment procedures. This will help you have an improved hearing condition and overall, better health.

Otitis Media

Otitis media is one of the common ear disorder known; it is an infection or an inflammation which affect the middle ear majorly. It occurs as a result of virus infection, bacterial infection and respiratory infection which spread to the middle ear. Otitis media is known to affect more during childhood, age three upward.

It can be diagnosed through physical examination or through the use of an otoscope to check.

Treatment options include

  • Use of anti-biotic taken orally is one option that works for some kids.
  • The surgical process which involves inserting of tubes into the ear to remove the fluid might be used.
  • Use of ear drops is another option that works well for some children.


Tinnitus also referred to as ringing in the ear or hearing of noise without any external source visibly causing it. There are two types, the subjective and objective. This infection is age-related or sometimes occur as a result of injury to the ear. This infection results in Ringing in the ear, buzzing of the ear, roaring sound, etc.

Tinnitus can be diagnosed through:

  • Hearing or audiological examination ( sitting in a soundproof room and wearing an earpiece before conduction the test)
  • Imaging tests which may include MRI scan, CT scan, etc.

Treatment options include treating underlying ear problems like removing wax, change of medications, etc.  Noise suppression, Use of medications.

External Ear Infection (Swimmer’s Ear)

This is an infection to the external part of the ear canal which moves from the eardrum to the outside of the ear. It is caused mostly by water residue in the ear especially after swimming which now paves the way for the growth of bacteria. Use of cotton swab, fingers for cleaning ear can also cause swimmer’s ear.

Diagnosis can be done via examination of the ear canal by a doctor using an otoscope, Visualization of the eardrum to check for damages.

Treatment option includes cleaning of the outer ear canal to allow easy flow of eardrop to the affected part; cleaning will be done using a suction device by a doctor. Medication usage is another option that’s to be considered. It includes the use of acidic solution, steroid, antibiotics, and antifungal medications.

Ear Wax (Cerumen)

Ear wax is an infection that consists of shed skin cell, hair, secretion of ceruminous and sebaceous gland outside the ear canal. It is a waxy substance that is secreted in the ear.

Diagnosis includes checking of the ear via imaging test, the doctor can check with torchlight for wax deposition check. The Otoscope can also be used for checking.

Treatment option includes the use of softeners to help remove the wax in the ear, softener like mineral oil, hydrogen peroxide, etc. as that is the major cause of ear wax. Ear irrigation is another option that can be used, currete and cotton swabs usage.

Auto-Immune Inner Ear Disease (AIED)

This is a disease that occurs when the body immune system mistakenly affects or attack the inner ear. It can result in dizziness and hearing loss. It is a rare disease though as it rarely happens.

The diagnosis of AIED can be done by first examining the symptoms felt, after which you will undergo several hearing tests. No definite test is available to detect AIED, but the previous history of hearing infection will serve as a signal.

Treatment of AIED can be done using:

  • Use of steroid
  • Use of medications
  • Use of hearing aid


This is an abnormal but a non-cancerous skin growth which is known to develop in the middle of the ear directly behind the eardrum. It often develops as a cyst, and it can grow big and destroy the bones in the ear.

Diagnosis can be done by checking using an otoscope to check if there are cysts developing in the ear. CT scan can also be used to check for cholesteatoma infection.

Treatment procedure that has been proved efficient is the use of surgery to remove the cyst formed in the ear. This will prevent it from affecting the ear further.

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Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery Fri, 20 Apr 2018 17:38:14 +0000 Carpal tunnel surgery, also medically referred to as carpal tunnel release (CTR) and carpal tunnel decompression surgery, constitutes surgeries in which the transverse carpal ligament, found in the wrist, is divided. This surgery is the standard course of treatment for patients that have Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome is defined as a condition in which the median nerve in the wrist experiences excessive pressure. This nerve in the wrist is responsible for feeling and movement of parts of the hand. A fairly serious condition, Carpal tunnel syndrome often leads to patients experiencing numbness, tingling, weakness, or muscle damage in the hand and fingers.

Causes of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

The area of the wrist where the nerve gains entrance into the hand is referred to as Carpal tunnel. The tunnel is naturally narrow. Any swelling of this tunnel can pinch the nerve and cause pain, numbness, tingling or weakness. This forms the basis for developing carpal tunnel syndrome. The more common causes of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome include the following:

  • Consuming of excess alcohol
  • Bone fractures and arthritis of the wrist
  • Developing Cyst or tumor of the wrist
  • Presence of infections
  • The effects of obesity
  • When the body retains extra fluids during pregnancy or menopause
  • The effects of Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Workers who use vibratory equipment on a daily basis

Symptoms of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

The signs of Carpal Tunnel syndrome include the following:

  • The clumsiness of the hand when holding objects.
  • Experiencing numbness or tingling in the thumb and next two or three fingers of one or both hands.
  • Experiencing numbness or tingling in the palm.
  • Experiencing pain that extends to the elbow.
  • Experiencing pain in the wrist or hand in one or both hands.
  • Experiencing problems with fine finger movements (coordination) in one or both hands
  • Deterioration of the muscle under the thumb (in advanced or long-term cases)
  • Weak grip or difficulty carrying bags (a common complaint)


The physician may perform a physical examination of the affected hand. This examination may reveal one or more of the following:

  • Numbness in the palm, thumb, index finger, middle finger, and thumb side of the ring finger of the affected hand.
  • A weakened hand grip
  • Tapping over the median nerve, resulting in pain emanating the wrist to the hand. This is a confirmation of Tinel sign
  • Bending the wrist forward all the way and holding for 60 seconds. Carpal syndrome exists when the patient experiences numbness or tingling sensation.

The doctor may also call for tests such as wrists x-rays ( to rule out other problems like arthritis), Electromyography as well as Nerve Conduction velocity ( to determine the speed at which electrical signals move through a nerve).

Surgery Description

The basic aim of a Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery is to create more space for nerves and tendons. To achieve this aim, the surgeon cuts through the carpal ligament. The surgery is performed in the following steps:

  • To begin the patient receives numbing medicine so that no pain is felt during the surgical process. Often the patients are aware of the activities going on around him/her, but he/she experiences no pain.
  • A small surgical cut is made in the palm of the patient’s hand near the wrist.
  • Next, the ligament that covers the carpal tunnel is cut. This eases the pressure on the median nerve.
  • Sometimes, tissue around the nerve is removed as well.
  • The skin and tissue underneath the skin of the wrist are closed with sutures (stitches).

At other times, the surgeon may elect to perform this procedure with the aid of a tiny camera attached to a monitor. This device is inserted into the wrist via a small surgical cut, to view the inside of the wrist. This process is referred to as Endoscopic surgery.

Once the surgery is completed, the patient’s wrist is dressed in a splint or heavy bandages. This is to prevent unnecessary movement and to allow the area heal. After the splint is removed, the patient then undergoes motion exercises or a physical therapy program.

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Procedures to Treat Foot and Ankle Conditions Mon, 02 Apr 2018 19:45:12 +0000 Ankle Fusion

Also termed as ankle arthrodesis, ankle fusion involves surgery to fuse ankle bones into one bone. The goal of this treatment option is to eliminate extraneous motion of the ankles.

Ankle fusion is performed in the operating room with patients that are sedated so that the patient does not feel the pain from the surgery. Sometimes, screws and plates are used to hold the fused ankle bones in place.

Ankle Joint Replacement

Ankle Joint Replacement is a surgical procedure performed to remove an injured or broken ankle joint. It is then replaced with metal or plastic components that resembles a new joint.

Recovery requires a period of immobilization and non-weight bearing until the joints have been stabilized. After the site has healed, range of motion activities are performed gradually to take the stress off the newly replaced ankle joint.

Arthroscopic (Minimally Invasive) Ankle Surgery

Ankle arthroscopy is a surgical procedure that is minimally invasive. This procedure involves insertion of an “arthroscope” (a soft, tiny, flexible tube with a video camera and a light at the end) to an ankle joint. This tube allows the surgeons to visualize and evaluate the condition of the ankle.

Arthroscopic ankle surgery benefits patients as it offers faster recovery period and less pain because it is less invasive than traditional surgery.

Lateral Ankle Ligament Reconstruction

Lateral ankle ligament reconstruction is generally an outpatient surgery. It is mostly done under regional or general anesthesia. Surgical techniques for this procedure depend on the problem existing on the ankle. Sometimes, this surgery involves stitching of ligaments for repair. In some cases, tendons are used to replace the broken ligaments.

The goal of this operation is to restore the ankle’s stability and reduce pain associated with the condition. Total recovery time may take 6 to 12 months.

Ankle Fixation

Different types of injury can damage the ankle bones. Ankle Fixation is a type of surgery that is used to fix, stabilize, and heal broken ankle bones. If the ankle is fractured, a procedure called ORIF (Open Reduction Internal Fixation) may be necessary. In an open reduction, pieces of the broken bones are repositioned to their normal alignment. Open reduction, on the other hand, refers to the process of physically reconnecting the separated bones with the use of rods or screws, as well as wires, plates, and nails. These special metals allow the bones to heal normally.

Debridement of Achilles Tendon

Achilles tendon debridement is an outpatient procedure performed to repair a degenerated or damaged Achilles tendon. The procedure involves debridement – removal of damaged or scarred tissues, tendon transfer (for severe cases), and suturing together of the healthy tissues. After the procedure, a splint or cast may be necessary for temporary immobilization.

Tightrope Fixation

Tightrope Fixation is a surgical procedure to stabilize an injured ankle. It is commonly used to repair and support high ankle sprain, and cases of separated tibia and fibula. The tightrope procedure involves anchoring of the two bones (tibia and fibula) together with the use of polyethylene cord to restore normal position of the bones. This fixation allows proper healing and provides support to the ankle bones.

Achilles Suture Bridge

Achilles Suture Bridge is a procedure done to reattach the Achilles tendon which is usually damaged in conditions like Achilles tendinosis. This goal of this surgical technique is to improve the heel’s stability.

Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (ESWT)

ESWT is a non-invasive procedure that sends energy waves to deliver mechanical force to specific body tissues. The goal of shock waves is to induce healing on the affected area.

Originally developed to treat kidney stones by dissolving them through the use of shockwaves, ESWT can also over-stimulate the nerve, and eliminate inflammation.

Plantar Fascia Release

Plantar fascia release involves partial cutting of the plantar fascia ligament (thick band of tissue connecting toes to heel bone) to relieve tension in the tissue. It removes the painful or diseased portion of the tissues.

It is typically completed as an outpatient surgery, patients go home but may be advised to limit or avoid weight-bearing temporarily. If sutures are placed, it may be removed 14 days post-surgery.

If you would like more information about these procedures, contact us to discuss different options with one of our podiatrists.

See Podiatry >>





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By The original uploader was Lorenz kerscher at English Wikipedia (Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons.) [GFDL ( or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons>

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Treatment for Foot Neuromas Mon, 02 Apr 2018 18:54:35 +0000 The anatomy of the human foot is quite complicated. Other important structures lie beneath the skin which includes the muscles, blood vessels, bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and nerves.

Foot neuromas affect the nerves – the bundle of axons (like electrical cables) serving as communication channels between any part of the body and the brain. Nerves allow the feet and toes to move while maintaining balance. They also provide the foot sensations for the brain to process.

Foot Neuromas

Foot Neuromas are nerve tissue thickening. They can develop anywhere in the body as long as there are nerves. The most common area of neuroma is between the third and fourth toes. Neuroma on this area is called “intermetatarsal” neuroma because they develop in the ball of the foot between metatarsal bones – the long tubular bones found at the mid-foot.

Risk Factors for Foot Neuromas

The thickening of the nerve is a result of nerve irritation. It may result from:

  • wearing of ill-fitting shoes (tapered toe box/ high-heeled)
  • certain foot deformities (hammertoes, flat feet, bunions, or flexible feet)
  • repetitive activities irritating the ball of the foot (common to athletes/runners)

Symptoms of Foot Neuromas

Foot neuromas may have one or more of the following where the nerve damage is occurring:

  • The feeling of something on the ball of the foot
  • Tingling or burning sensation
  • Numbness in the toes
  • Pain or discomfort

Symptoms begin gradually and wear away when shoes are off, or after a massage, and rest. Over time, symptoms worsen and become more intense as the nerve thickening grows larger and becomes permanent.

How is Foot Neuroma Treated?

Treatment for foot neuromas varies depending on the extent and severity of symptoms. A physician may recommend one or more of the following treatment options:

Non-surgical Treatment for Foot Neuroma

  • Orthotic devices

Customized devices that are applied externally to:

  • provide support to the feet or ankle
  • accommodate deformity
  • decrease the pressure on the affected nerve
  • assist rehabilitation
  • reduce pain
  • correct alignment
  • increase mobility


  • Ice-heat pack therapy

Ice pack helps reduce inflammation, thereby lessening pain. An ice pack can be used for 15-20 minutes and at least 2-3 times per day. However, an ice pack should be avoided if there are other problems such as sensation or circulation problems.

Usually, after ice compress, heat packs are applied as a contrast therapy. Ice and heat packs are used alternatively. Heat packs, however, should be applied for no more than 15 minutes to avoid burns.

While ice therapy reduces swelling, heat therapy promotes blood flow that helps to speed up the healing process.

  • Padding

Padding such as metatarsal pads helps loosen the bones in the ball of the foot, lessening pressure and compression on the nerve.

  • Footwear modifications

Shoes should be wide enough and not narrow-toed. High heels should also be avoided. Continuing to use ill-fitting shoes aggravates the pain and worsens the condition.

  • Activity modifications

Repetitive activities such as running, or walking should be avoided especially if it is the cause of neuroma.

  • Physical therapy

Physical therapy includes stretching, toe exercises, massage, and ankle exercises. It is an essential part of the treatment plan as it promotes healing and aids in pain reduction.

  • Medications

Anti-inflammatory and analgesics may be prescribed to reduce inflammation and pain.

  • Injection therapy

Injection therapy involves the use of steroid and local anesthesia to prevent inflammation and reduce pain.

Surgery for Foot Neuroma

Surgery may be suggested to patients whose symptoms have not improved

  • Decompression surgery

Some individuals with neuroma feel better after decompression surgery. This operation involves cutting of structures near the thickened nerve to relieve pressure.

  • Removal of neuroma

Surgical removal of a foot neuroma may be needed if other treatments do not work. Excision of the neuroma can reduce the pressure and tension on the surrounding compressed nerves. The surgery, however, can still result in numbness of the affected toes.

If you suspect you have foot neuroma, contact us to discuss different options with one of our podiatrists.

See Podiatry >>



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  • “Nerve Conduction Studies. Medical investigations, information | Patient.” Symptom Checker, Health Information and Medicines Guide | Patient.  <>.


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Causes and Symptoms of Burning Feet Mon, 02 Apr 2018 18:38:00 +0000 Burning feet cases have been reported and reviewed for approximately more than two centuries. Described subjectively by patients as “feet that are like on fire” or “feet burning like red pepper,” this condition draws similar characteristics and parallels with different underlying conditions.

What Causes Burning Feet?

Various causes of burning feet include:

  • Vitamin B Deficiency

Burning feet has been associated with vitamin B deficiency. Research suggests that if a person lacks vitamin B (usually Riboflavin), a disturbance in tissue metabolism occurs, leading to an overload of intermediate metabolites in the body. These metabolites, creates excessive stimulation, abnormal pain and temperature thresholds, and disruptions on the peripheral sensory nerve endings.

  • Chronic Alcoholism

Alcohol is known to increase the metabolic demand for vitamin B1. Aside from that, the intestinal absorption of thiamine is disrupted if a significant amount of alcohol circulates in the body.

Decreased levels of vitamin B1 and Thiamine impairs nerve conduction and the normal process of neurons to maintain ATP or Adenosine triphosphate – the primary energy carrier. These events can lead to Alcoholic polyneuropathy or ‘alcohol leg syndrome’, a neurological disorder that can cause pain, burning sensations, and weakness in the extremities.

  • Malabsorption Syndrome/Bypass Surgeries

After few weeks or months of bypass surgery, burning feet may be experienced due to reduced absorption of B vitamins.

  • Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is one of the causes of burning feet. High blood glucose can damage the nerves which commonly occurs on the legs and feet. Because nerves are damaged, the nerve conduction is slowed causing pain, numbness, or sensory loss. Patients describe nerve pain secondary to diabetes as prickling, burning, dull pain sensation.

  • Renal Failure (Dialysis Patients)

Dialysis patients may experience burning feet due to loss of certain vitamins and necessary toxins causing burning feet symptoms.

  • Hypothyroidism

Specific connections between burning feet and hypothyroidism still need thorough research. So far, hypothyroidism is known to cause fluid retention, and when there is a large amount of fluid in the body, tissues swell causing compression on nerves.

  • Traumatic Nerve Compression

Burning feet may result from compression of nerves secondary to mechanical causes, trauma, and other conditions such as Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome. Whenever nerve impingement occurs, symptoms of numbness, tingling, or burning sensations manifest.

  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) or Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS)

Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Multiple Sclerosis are both diseases that affect the nervous system. In MS, the nerves that send signals are destroyed causing nerve damage symptoms. On the other hand, in GBS, the peripheral nervous system is affected, and the nerves are attacked by the body’s own immune system resulting in numbness, weakness, tingling, or burning sensations.

  • Psychosomatic

Individuals with psychiatric disorders may experience symptoms of burning feet. It may present with other psychosomatic manifestations like paresthesia or numbness as a result of neurotransmitter or electrolyte imbalance.

  • Erythromelalgia

Erythromelalgia is a rare condition involving abnormal aggregation of platelets causing occlusion and scarring of the arterioles. This occlusion and scarring can lead to swelling in different parts of the body causing episodes of burning pain sensations, severe redness, and increased skin temperature.

  • Gitelman Syndrome

Gitelman syndrome is a rare hereditary disorder causing a disruption of the normal kidney function. This defect can result in changes in electrolyte balance from impaired salt reabsorption in the kidneys. Other electrolytes that are affected include magnesium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and sodium.

Symptoms such as dizziness, muscle weakness, cramping, spasms, numbness or tingling, pain, and burning sensations are just some of the effects of the electrolyte imbalances.

Listed above are the most common causative factors that may increase the risk of having a condition called burning feet. Other causes include Chronic Mountain Sickness, Leishmaniasis, Sarcoidosis.

What are the Clinical Features of Burning Feet?

Clinical manifestations of burning feet may vary from one patient to another. The upper extremities are often spared. In general, the signs and symptoms may include:

  • Burning sensation in the lower extremities

This sensation may be limited to the soles of the feet on some patients. Others may experience a burning feeling that may ascend from the soles to the ankles or lower legs. Patients describe it as “feet that are like on fire” or “feet burning like red pepper”.

  • Numbness

Numbness may be characterized as having little or no sensation on the feet. It is usually followed by tingling sensations.

  • Tingling sensation

These are feelings that are often called as “pins or needles”.

  • Dull ache on the feet

Pain in the feet may be dull or heavy. According to most patients, this discomfort worsens at night.

Most patients who are nutritionally deficient experience signs and symptoms of a burning feet within five months of low nutritional status. Aside from discomfort and pain on the feet, this condition can lead to foot ulcers, falls, and loss of a limb in severe untreated cases.

If you suspect you have one of these conditions, contact us to discuss different options with one of our podiatrists.

See Podiatry >>




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Clubfoot in Adults Mon, 02 Apr 2018 18:06:42 +0000 Clubfoot, medically known as talipes equinovarus is an inborn foot deformity that causes significant changes in the feet’s normal alignment and flexibility. It can cause problems to one or both feet and can be mild or severe.

Typically, clubfoot is treated few weeks after birth while the tendons, bones, ligaments, muscles, and other feet structures are soft and are easy to move. If the treatment did not work during the early stages of life, clubfoot might remain present until adulthood.

Signs and Symptoms of Clubfoot

Clubfoot may be evident to the naked eye, but sometimes, diagnostic test such as ultrasound (before birth) can be used for early detection. In general, signs and symptoms of clubfoot include:

  • Inward distortion of the foot: The soles of the feet do not lay flat on the ground; instead, they face towards each other (inner side). The ball of the foot also appears lower than the heel
  • The feet are stiff: The feet cannot be moved, and the joints do not work normally.
  • Smaller calf muscles: The affected foot has smaller calf muscles.
  • The affected foot does not lay flat on the ground: The deformity causes the patient to walk on the side of the foot
  • Difficulty in wearing footwear: Shoes does not fit most of the time

Tendons and Clubfoot

Tendons are tough fibrous connective tissues that connect bones to muscles. They provide support to the feet and are capable of withstanding tension. If the tendons connecting the leg muscles and the bones of the feet become too tight or short, clubfoot can manifest.

Risk Factors of Clubfoot

In some cases, clubfoot’s causative factor remains an enigma, but several studies show that the following factors can contribute to the development of clubfoot:

  • Baby’s position in the womb – this type is believed to be a result of an abnormal feet positioning while still in the womb.
  • Inherited genes – This is the most common type of clubfoot. Several cases are linked to family history.
  • Congenital disabilities In some cases, clubfoot occurs as a sign of an underlying abnormality in the muscular or nervous system or as a part of a congenital disability.

Diagnosis of Clubfoot

Family history and a thorough physical examination help make a diagnosis of clubfoot in adults. Radiology studies are useful in determining if the clubfoot is mild or severe.

Management of Clubfoot

Clubfoot in adults is commonly managed by casting or surgery. Depending on the severity of clubfoot, the physician may recommend either of the two.

  • Casting – This is a less invasive approach to treat clubfoot. It is frequently done via the ‘Ilizarov method’ which works like a brace on the teeth. An external fixator is applied, and the patient will be advised to adjust it at home as per doctor’s instructions. The fixator that serves as a ‘cast’ helps the bones to move into normal position gradually.
  • Surgery – Clubfoot may also be corrected through surgery. The affected tendon on foot is adjusted to increase its length and is loosened if it is too tight. In some cases, individuals with clubfoot undergo a procedure called ‘tendon transfer’ to loosen contracted tendons.

Surgery may be extensive because the normal anatomical structure in adults is already established. However, if clubfoot is not treated, it may affect everyday life and may lead to a permanent condition.

If you suspect you have one of these conditions, contact us to discuss different options with one of our podiatrists.

See Podiatry >>




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This image was originally posted to Flickr by Internet Archive Book Images at It was reviewed on 13 September 2015 by FlickreviewR and was confirmed to be licensed under the terms of the No known copyright restriction

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