Pine Creek Medical Center Dallas Medical Center Tue, 27 Nov 2018 21:23:34 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Minimally Invasive Foot Surgeries Thu, 01 Nov 2018 18:45:13 +0000 In the last few decades, the medical community has witnessed a significant development in new surgical methods to improve an even better patient care. With an increasing number of diseases, certain conditions, injuries, and various medical problems, we were prompted to expand and redefine surgical treatment techniques.

Foot surgeries are no different, with many patients’ request to minimize foot incisions and surgeons’ desire to reduce tissue trauma, foot surgeries were also redefined.

What is Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery?

A minimally invasive foot surgery is defined as a procedure that is carried out by using specialized surgical instruments through small incisions in the skin. Many surgeons had considered this concept since the early 1800s, but it was not until the 70’s that it was taken into action.

What Conditions Can Be Treated with Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery?

Here are some of the conditions that minimally invasive foot surgery can address:

  • Arthritic Joints
  • Bunions
  • Bone spurs
  • Calluses
  • Corns
  • Deformities
  • Diabetic ulcers
  • Flatfoot
  • Hammertoes
  • Heel spurs
  • Hyperpronation
  • Metatarsalgia
  • Nerve Entrapments
  • Neuromas
  • Plantar Fasciitis
  • Soft tissue lesions
  • Tendon Rupture

Minimally invasive foot surgery is a procedure that can be utilized for a permanent correction or surgical treatment of most foot and ankle conditions. For more problems and conditions that can be treated with minimally invasive foot surgery, speak with one of our specialists.

What Kinds of Anesthesia is Used for Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery?

Depending on the type of foot surgery, one of the following anesthesia may be used:

Local anesthesia (most common) – a local anesthesia is done by injecting a solution into the foot, ankle, toe, or near the knee depending on the area that needs to be accessed. This means that you may be awake during the procedure but your foot being operated on will be numb and will be draped or covered away from you.

A local anesthesia is an extremely safe medication for surgeries, but, like with any other medications, some people may be allergic or sensitive to them. Still, many patients undergoing surgery choose to have the surgery using local anesthesia.

Local anesthesia with sedation – a local anesthesia with sedation may be used in certain conditions as deemed necessary by the surgeon. This type of anesthesia requires the presence of an anesthetist during the procedure. If this is the kind of anesthesia that will be used for your operation, you may be asked not to eat or drink 6-8 hours prior to your foot surgery.

Before undergoing a foot surgery, the type of anesthesia will be discussed by the surgeon. Not all of these are offered in all hospitals, but the most common anesthetic for foot surgeries are local anesthesia.

Can Patients Go Home Same Day After Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery?

The answer is Yes. Most minimally invasive foot surgeries are “day case procedures” which means that patients can go home the same day after the procedure.

What are the Challenges and Issues relating to Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery?

While there are many advantages of using minimally invasive foot surgeries, there will always be some cases where the traditional open surgery is more appropriate. In some primary hospitals, minimally invasive surgeries may not be an option due to the unavailability of specialized instruments or equipment.
It is also important to note that not all surgeons are trained to perform minimally invasive surgeries. Always make sure that any type of minimally invasive foot surgery should be performed only by a sufficiently trained surgeon to carry out the procedure.

Why Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery?

Minimally invasive foot surgeries, as the name implies, result in far less or “minimal” trauma than other surgical methods. Decrease disruption and tissue trauma usually reduces the necessity for the use of pins, plates, screws, and plaster casting to heal ankle or foot pathology correctly.

This type of surgery can also reduce the amount of hospital stay and the recovery period of a patient. Aside from these benefits, minimally invasive foot surgeries can also reduce the risk of post-surgical complications, as well as post-operative pain and scarring.

Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery Pine Creek Medical Center

If you are experiencing chronic ankle and foot pain due to a sports injury, trauma, and other medical conditions, call our department at Pine Creek Medical Center today. Our physicians can talk to you about the solutions we can offer, be it minimally invasive surgery or other treatment options that may be beneficial for you.




  • Eric Bluman and Christopher Chiodo. Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Dec 1, 2015. Ebook.
  • “Information For Patients –” – Academy of Minimally Invasive Foot and Ankle Surgery. Web. <>.
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Osteoarthritis of the Hand Tue, 30 Oct 2018 16:42:45 +0000 How Do I Know if I Have it?

Osteoarthritis is one of the most common conditions that affect the aging population. It is by far, the most common disease that affects the joints, causing stiffness and pain.

Although it may affect the joints of the knees and the back, the wrists and the hands are usually affected as well, contributing to the most common cause of disability in older adults.

What Causes Hand Osteoarthritis?

While osteoarthritis of the hand is related to aging, it has been associated with other various modifiable and non-modifiable factors such as lack of exercise, obesity, genetic predisposition, occupational injury, bone density issues, gender, and trauma.

How is Hand Osteoarthritis Diagnosed?

Hand osteoarthritis is currently diagnosed by a physical assessment in a doctor’s clinic, medical history taking, and, where necessary, an imaging such as radiology (x-ray) of the hand, an MRI scan, or arthroscopy. Other tests such as blood exams may be helpful as well including tests for joint fluids.

What are the Signs and Symptoms?

Osteoarthritis can affect any joint in the body, but if you think you have hand osteoarthritis, watch out for the following signs and symptoms:

  • Stiffness of the joints of the fingers or wrists – Joint stiffness may be experienced by individuals with hand osteoarthritis after a period of inactivity or in the morning.
  • Swelling in one or more joints in the hand inflammation, and swelling may occur after extended activity. This happens due to the excess fluid in the joints that are the result of the immune system’s response to the friction between bones and the bony outgrowths or osteophytes or nodes in the joint space.
  • A sound of bone rubbing against another bone of the hand – hands with osteoarthritis may produce grating or grinding sounds as the bone ends rub against each other
  • Mild but progressing pain of the affected joints – certain individuals feel no pain, but many have reported stiffness and pain that is usually worse at night which affects one or more joints.
  • Progressive and steady enlargement of one or more joints or deformity – characteristic findings in hand osteoarthritis include osteophyte formation (bony outgrowth linked with the degeneration of cartilage), degenerative cyst formation, joint space narrowing and possible subluxation (misalignment) of the thumbs or digits.
  • Difficulty of moving the fingers – fine motor activities become increasingly difficult as the inflammation, pain, and stiffness progress. Individuals with hand osteoarthritis may have trouble chopping vegetables, opening mails, eating finger foods, tying shoelaces, and buttoning clothes.
  • Loss of hand function – functional limitations of the hand may occur due to any of the symptoms or a combination listed above including pain, weak grasp, as well as stiffness during finger movement.


Treatment of hand osteoarthritis is designed to relieve the pain, reduce swelling, and restore hand function. Medications such as analgesics and anti-inflammatories may be of benefit to most individuals. Brief periods of rest and appropriate exercise may help in between arthritis flare-ups. Patients may also use hand, wrist, or finger splints during certain activities or at night. If mild to moderate inflammation is present, heat application such as paraffin baths or warm wax might help. But for severe swelling, cold modalities may be more beneficial.

If you have hand osteoarthritis, the function of the fingers should be maintained as productively as possible, as well as the use of the hand.

Cortisone injections may be used to relieve symptoms but won’t cure arthritis if the primary cause is not addressed. Surgery is indicated when most of the conservative treatments fail. It might be warranted in some cases if there is too much pain on the hand or fingers or there is too little hand function.

At Pine Creek Medical Center, the goal is to restore as much function as possible and eradicate or relieve and reduce pain to a tolerable level. The type of treatment for your hand osteoarthritis depends on the severity of the condition, your activities, what particular joints are involved, and your own needs. Our highly-experienced physicians can help you assess, diagnose, and decide which type of treatment is the most appropriate for you.




  • “Hand Osteoarthritis.” Dr Leo M Rozmaryn – Orthopaedic Surgeon Rockville MD | Hand Surgeon. Web. <>.
  • “Osteoarthritis of the Hands, Fingers and/or Wrists.” MyJointPain | Welcome. Web. <>.
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  • “Osteoarthritis Symptoms.” Arthritis Foundation | Symptoms Treatments | Prevention Tips | Pain Relief Advice. Web. <>.
  • “Osteoarthritis.” WHO | World Health Organization. Web. <>.
  • “What is Osteoarthritis.” National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). Web. <>.
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5 Most Common Surgeries for Football Injury Tue, 30 Oct 2018 16:16:08 +0000 Football is one of the most common team sports that is played on nearly every continent. Along with the increasing number of new players, the number of reported injuries increase as well.

In the United States, almost 30 million kids and teenagers participate in some form of team sports, and more than 11.67% of the total participants get injured each year. The higher rates of these injuries occur in sports that involve collisions and contact such as football, basketball, and other contact team sports.

Football and Sports Injuries

While playing football, any injury can happen. In fact, almost every move in a football game can result in some kind of an injury due to tackling, rushing, running, catching and throwing of the football. Aside from these causes, sudden impact and overuse can also result in an injury.

Most Common Football Injuries

Here are the most common football injuries:

Knee Injuries

  • ACL Tear or Sprain

Anterior Cruciate Ligament, short for ACL is a ligament located in the middle of the knee. This ligament prevents the shin bone from moving out and sliding out towards the front of the thigh bone.

An injury to the ACL is usually caused by trauma to the shin. This kind of injury is common to soccer and football players and is considered as the most common ligamentous injury, which accounts for 200,000 injuries annually in the United States.

  • Meniscus Tears

A meniscus is a cartilage in the knee that serves as a shock absorber and cushion between the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone). It also helps the knee during weight-bearing.

A tear or damage in the meniscus can occur when the knee receives a direct blow, or when it is forcefully twisted.

Ankle Injuries

  • Torn Ankle Ligaments

Football players run back and forth the field. Whether cutting side to side or tackling other players or jumping to catch a ball, they can easily get injured in the ankle from a direct trauma or wrong twisting of the ankle joint.

Ankle sprains and injuries involve a disruption on the fibers of the lateral ankle ligaments – the tissue fibers that stabilize the ankle. This kind of injury usually results from a twisting injury.

Shoulder Injuries

  • Labral Injury

The shoulder joint is composed of three bones: the shoulder blade (scapula), the collarbone (clavicle), and the upper arm bone (the humerus). This upper arm bone called humerus rests its head on a socket in the shoulder blade. To stabilize these parts together, a soft fibrous tissue called the ‘labrum’ surrounds the socket. It also serves as a connection/attachment site for other several ligaments.

Injuries to the labrum, which can be in a form of lesion or tear (collectively termed as labral injuries) can occur from repetitive shoulder motion or acute blow or trauma to the shoulder. These injuries can happen secondary to forceful overhead movements, a direct blow to the shoulder, sudden pulling of the shoulder, or falling on the ground with an outstretched arm.

Hip Injuries

  • The hip joint is composed of a socket (the acetabulum) and the thigh bone (the femur). The hip is a stable joint because of a fibrocartilaginous part called the ‘labrum’ that surrounds the socket. It functions to stabilize, seal, and enhance the joint.

Athletes, especially football players, who are exposed to various extreme movements, are at risk of injuring these structures. Due to frequent running, immediate stopping, sudden pivoting, the labrum can tear easily.

Top 5 Surgeries for Football Injury

After getting familiar with the five most common injuries that athletes or any football player can have, let us also discuss the five most common surgeries for a football injury:

  1. Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction

ACL reconstruction surgery involves the use of a graft to ‘reconstruct’ and repair the damage on the ACL ligament. The most common type of graft is one that uses own parts of the body such as hamstring tendons or patellar tendons (from the kneecap). The surgery is done by removing and replacing the torn ligament with the graft.

It is an outpatient procedure that is performed by a surgeon who specializes in joint and bone surgeries. It is accomplished by creating small incisions on the knee joint.

  1. Partial Meniscectomy

Partial Meniscectomy is a surgical procedure that involves removal of the torn or damaged portion of the meniscus which causes pain and inflammation. Although some cases of meniscus tear/injury can be sewn back together, most cases require partial removal of the torn meniscus.

Currently, with the use of smaller surgical instruments, partial meniscectomy can be performed by using a surgical scissor placed through a small arthroscopic portal.

  1. Lateral Ankle Ligament Repair/Reconstruction

Lateral Ankle Ligament Repair is a common surgery for those who have injuries in the ankle ligaments that are not responsive to non-invasive treatments. For athletes who have developed lateral ankle instability, this procedure can also be beneficial.

It is done under a general or a regional anesthesia, and it is typically an outpatient procedure. Several techniques can be used for this surgery depending on the condition of the ankle ligaments. Most of the time, a repair is done by stitching the ligaments to be made stronger using the support of other tissues. In other cases, tendons may be used to take the place of torn ankle ligaments.

  1. Arthroscopic shoulder labral repair

Arthroscopic shoulder labral repair, also known as shoulder arthroscopy is a procedure that uses a specialized camera to view the shoulder joints through tiny incisions. With the use of the camera, the surgeon is able to view the shoulder bones and joints in detail, without creating a large cut or incision in the skin. Through the incisions, surgical instruments are also used to repair the labral tear or injury.

In most cases, patients can go home the same day of the surgery. A sling might be prescribed which is to be worn for the first three days. Like other surgeries that involve bones and joints, physical therapy may be advised as well.

  1. Arthroscopic Hip Labral Repair

Arthroscopic Hip Labral Repair is almost the same as arthroscopic shoulder labral repair. The only difference is that the body part being repaired is on the hip and not in the shoulder.

To perform this procedure, Arthroscopic Hip Labral Repair (also known as Hip Arthroscopy), small incisions are created. Then, the surgeon will access the damaged labrum of the hip by using specialized surgical instruments. He or she then repairs the torn labrum improving the hip joint function.




  • ” ACL reconstruction – Mayo Clinic.” Mayo Clinic – Mayo Clinic. <>.
  • “Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction – Wikipedia.” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  <>.
  • Arthroscopic Labral Surgery.” Orthopaedic Surgery Cincinnati | Sport Medicine | Sports Injury.  <>.
  • “Arthroscopic Labrum Repair of the Shoulder (SLAP) .” Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts – Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.  <>.
  • Evans, Stephanie, Justin Shaginaw, and Arthur Bartolozzi. “ACL RECONSTRUCTION ‐ IT’S ALL ABOUT TIMING.” International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy2 (2014): 268–273. Print.
  • “Football Injuries.” org – The Official Site of the NCAA.Web. <>.
  • “Hip Arthroscopy – OrthoInfo – AAOS.” Web. <>.
  • “Lateral Ankle Ligament Reconstruction.” Web. <>.
  • “Medscape Log In .” Medscape Drugs & Diseases – Comprehensive peer-reviewed medical condition, surgery, and clinical procedure articles with symptoms, diagnosis, staging, treatment, drugs and medications, prognosis, follow-up, and pictures.  <>.
  • “Meniscus Tear Repair Surgery: What To Expect & Recovery Time.” WebMD – Better information. Better health. <>.
  • “Partial meniscectomy: Frequently asked questions | Dr. David Geier – Sports Medicine Simplified.” Home | Dr. David Geier – Sports Medicine Simplified.  <>.
  • “Rehabilitation Guidelines for Hip Arthroscopy Procedures.” Home | UW Health | Madison, WI.  <>.
  • “Shoulder Arthroscopy – OrthoInfo – AAOS.” Web. <>.
  • ” Sports Injury Statistics | Johns Hopkins Medicine Health Library.” Johns Hopkins Medicine, based in Baltimore, Maryland. <,P02787>.
  • “Surgery for Hip Labral Tears | NYU Langone Health.” Patient Care at NYU Langone Health.  <>.
  • “5 Common Football Injuries.” Better Braces For Injuries | The Sports Bracing & Therapy Experts | Free Shipping.  <>.
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Can Sinus Surgery Help? Thu, 04 Oct 2018 17:33:26 +0000 Asthma, Sinusitis, and Allergies: Can Sinus Surgery Help?

In the recent years, there has been increasing cases of allergies, asthma, and sinus problems. While its primary cause is still unknown, many health professionals suspect that it might be due to the environment that is getting more and more polluted.

Some, however, debate that these conditions have to do with many people being ‘too clean’ to the point that they become sensitive to little amount of dirt or allergens. So, when they get exposed to it, the immune system immediately recognizes it as a ‘foreign substance’ and quickly develops a defensive reaction towards it.

Although it may, or may not be the real cause, certain strategies were developed to prevent the increasing number of asthmas, allergies, and sinusitis.

Asthma, Sinusitis, and Allergies

Allergies occur when an individual’s immune system reacts to the substances (allergens) in the environment that might be harmless to other people. These substances include dust, pollens, animal dander, and dust mite excretions. People with allergies to any of these allergens can develop an immune reaction called an ‘allergic reaction.’

When bad allergies are not treated immediately, they can lead to asthma or chronic sinusitis, which is the inflammation of the sinuses. These conditions cause airway problems.

What is a Sinus Surgery?

Unlike other forms of surgery, where a non-functioning part or a diseased organ is removed; sinus surgery involves the creation and re-routing of the pathways in the sinuses.

The old techniques for sinus surgery involve removal of the diseased or damaged sinus lining and tissues to improve the natural drainage of mucus, pus, and other exudates. This is done by creating a drainage pathway for the infected material to be removed and drained out from the sinus cavities.

Nowadays, surgeons employ the use of endoscopic techniques to allow better visualization without the need for a large external incision. As a result, there is less bleeding, swelling, discomfort, pain, and a faster recovery.

Sinus Surgery: How Does it Help?

Recent developments and discoveries in treatment techniques have proven that early intervention reduces the risk of disease progression. There are also many pieces of evidence that verify the many benefits of sinus surgery.

Some of the many advantages include:

  • Reduced pain
  • Less facial pressure
  • Decreased risk for infections
  • Better airway conditions
  • Prevention of inflammation
  • Fewer chances of having nasal drainage
  • Improved quality of life

While sinus surgeries do not necessarily cure someone from being allergic to specific allergens, they do help by opening up airways and help the sinuses be drained of certain exudates such as pus or mucus before the condition becomes worse from infection.


It cannot be stressed more strongly that management and care after surgery are as equally important as the process of the operation itself. Surgeons, physicians, and all the other healthcare staff can only do as much. Like with any other type of surgical procedure, it is always up to the patient to share on how the treatment plan goes because it is part of the patients’ responsibility as well.

When to Have Sinus Surgery

Even though sinus surgery can help you with your allergies, chronic sinusitis, or asthma, we recommend you to use conservative treatments like medications to treat your problems first. If all of the non-invasive treatments failed, or if they are not a good solution to your health concern, then sinus surgery can be an excellent treatment method. Remember, always try non-invasive first before going into any surgery.

In some cases, however, the sooner some individuals take this step (sinus surgery), the fewer health problems and complications arise due to the allergies. For example, if asthma causes chronic fatigue, secondary to being unable to sleep from blocked sinuses, you can talk to your physician and try to consider getting a sinus surgery.

Sinus Surgery at Pine Creek Medical Center

To figure out if you should have sinus surgery, contact Pine Creek Medical Center today. Book an appointment with any of our asthma, sinus, or allergy specialist so we can have your problems taken care of! Our physicians are highly trained to diagnose, manage, and treat any Dallas allergies.




  • “Allergen – Wikipedia.” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  <>.
  • “Asthma and Sinus Surgery – Asthma Center – Everyday Health.” Everyday Health: Trusted Medical Information, Expert Health Advice, News, Tools, and Resources.  <>.
  • “Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Symptoms, Risks & Complications.”Web. <>.
  • “Top 4 Benefits of Sinus Surgery – New York, NY Sinus Surgeon.” Top 4 Benefits of Sinus Surgery – New York, NY Sinus Surgeon.  <Https:// >.
  • “What is allergy? – Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA).” Home – Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA).  <>.
  • “Will Sinus Surgery Help My Allergies? – American Sinus Institute.” Balloon Sinuplasty – American Sinus Institute – San Antonio & Houston, TX.  <>.
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Appendectomy Thu, 23 Aug 2018 19:46:47 +0000 What is the Appendix?

The human appendix is a small, 3 to 4-inch tube attached to the cecum – the junction that connects the small bowel (intestine) to the large intestine. It is a worm-like appendage (hence the term appendix), that is also termed as ‘cecal appendix’ or ‘vermiform appendix.’

Do I Need My Appendix?

The function of the appendix has always been a topic for debate. Most of us have heard the word “appendicitis,’ and yet, many people are still unaware of the role that it plays in our digestive system.

Some researchers believed that the appendix of our primitive ancestors served as an organ to digest extra roughage. However, this is only a speculation based on the fact that early humans consumed barks of trees and other plants.

According to Oklahoma State University Physiology Professor Loren G. Martin, as published in Scientific American, the human appendix has a function, contrary to popular belief. He stated that our appendix has a role during fetal development. Around 11 weeks, the appendix appears to be endocrine cells, which is responsible for the production of amines and hormones—assisting homeostasis in the body of the fetus.

What is an Appendectomy?

Appendectomy is a surgical procedure performed by experts to remove an inflamed appendix due to appendicitis. An infected appendix can perforate (burst) anytime and release stool or bacteria in the abdominal cavity.

Signs and symptoms of Appendectomy may include:

  • Pain in the abdomen which usually begins at the umbilical area that extends to the lower right side
  • Loss of appetite
  • Increased pressure and pain when walking
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Constipation or diarrhea
  • Difficulty standing straight

Why Undergo an Appendectomy?

Medication and therapy won’t cure an infected appendix. The only treatment option that can treat appendicitis is an appendectomy. This procedure will not affect long-term health even if it involves removal of the appendix.

It is better to remove the appendix while in the early stages of the disease than wait before it gets worse. If untreated, the appendix will perforate (burst) and release bacteria and other contents into the abdominal cavity, where the intestines and other digestive organs are located. Infection of the abdominal cavity can result in severe health issues.

What Happens Before an Appendectomy?

As with any surgical procedure, a thorough assessment and evaluation are needed before undergoing an appendectomy. Be sure to tell your nurse or physician if you have any allergies. Your surgeon will talk to you regarding the procedure, as well as expectations and possible complications.

What Happens During an Appendectomy?

You may be given intravenous fluids and certain antibiotics during the surgery. Your anesthesiologist and surgeon will also give you anesthetic medication to keep you sedated and unconscious during the entire procedure. This will also keep you pain-free, so you won’t get hurt when the surgeon starts cutting and removing your appendix.

Appendectomy can be done as:

  • Open Appendectomy – Also known as open surgery. This is performed by creating an incision that is about 3 inches long in the lower right side of the abdomen.
  • Laparoscopic Appendectomy – In a laparoscopic appendectomy, only small incisions are created to remove the appendix. A laparoscope (tiny tube with a built-in camera) is inserted through the incision. The camera helps the surgeon to view and monitor the abdominal contents. It will also serve as a guide during the

Possible Risks of an Appendectomy

Appendectomy is usually a safe procedure. But, like other surgical procedures, they have some risks such as:

  • Bleeding or infection on the incision site
  • Abscess or swelling in the abdomen
  • Bowel blockage
  • Leakage of bowel material
  • Hernia at the incision site
  • Paralytic ileus or slowness of bowel muscles
  • Risk of premature delivery (for pregnant individuals)
  • Death

What Happens After an Appendectomy?

The incisions will be closed either with staples or stitches. You may also have a temporary drainage apparatus in the abdomen. In most cases, patients can go home 1-day post laparoscopic/open appendectomy if there are no complications. If the appendix burst, your hospital stay may be extended.

Follow up visits may be scheduled in 1 to 2 weeks, depending on your surgeon/physician’s discretion.

Appendectomy at Pine Creek Medical Center

Having an appendectomy is the best way to treat infection and inflammation of the appendix. The danger of not treating your appendicitis is life-threatening. Therefore, if you suspect that you have an inflamed appendix, immediately call your family physician or book with one at Pine Creek Medical Center. You can entrust your appendectomy to our board-certified and highly-skilled surgeons.



  • “Appendectomy Diagnosis and Surgery.” My HealtheVet Veterans Health Library.  <>.
  • “Appendectomy Surgical Removal of the Appendix.” American College of Surgeons.  <>.
  • Johnson, Priya. “Appendix Function.” Wasatch County School District / Overview.  <>.
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Cholecystectomy Thu, 23 Aug 2018 19:38:04 +0000 What is the Gallbladder?

The human gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located at the upper-right side of the abdomen hiding under the liver. It stores a combination of fluids, some fats, cholesterol, and the bile.

How Does the Gallbladder Work?

The gallbladder’s principal function is to store bile, a substance that helps the digestive system in breaking down fats from the food we eat. The liver produces this substance (the bile) and sends them to the gallbladder for storage. Each day, about 3 to 5 cups of bile is produced by the liver. When we eat fatty cuts of pork, beef, dark chicken meat or high-fat dairy foods, the gallbladder squeezes out the stored bile through its small ducts towards the small intestine.

What is a Cholecystectomy?

Cholecystectomy is a procedure used to remove a diseased/ non-functioning/ infected, or sick gallbladder. It is also done to surgically remove a gallbladder with gallstones to stop pain or infection.

Why Undergo a Cholecystectomy?

Gallbladder stones are very common these days, and cholecystectomy is often the only solution to this problem. Gallstones are fragments formed from bile that varies in shape, size, and color.  They may cause infection of the gallbladder (Cholecystitis), abdominal tenderness, and pain that usually starts near the belly button or the right side of the abdomen.

Cholecystectomy is performed to treat gallstones and prevent any complications that they may cause. Your surgeon may suggest cholecystectomy if there is:

  • Gallbladder inflammation (Cholecystitis)
  • Gallstones in your gallbladder (Cholelithiasis)
  • Gallstones in your bile duct (Choledocholithiasis)
  • Gallstones causing inflammation of the pancreas (Pancreatitis)

What Happens Before a Cholecystectomy?

To be sure of the diagnosis and the need for gallbladder removal, your physician will ask you about the pain and other stomach problems that you may feel. He/she will also do a physical assessment or request further testing.

Additional tests may include any of the following: complete blood count, blood chemistry, coagulation profile, ultrasound, Hepatobiliary scan, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and MRI.

If you have other medical conditions or if you are taking any medications, be sure to inform your doctor to avoid complications.

What Happens During a Cholecystectomy?

You will be brought to the surgical unit/operating room and will be put under general anesthesia.

Currently, there are two main techniques to perform a cholecystectomy:

  • Open Cholecystectomy – This is done by creating a 6-inch incision along the abdomen’s upper right side. Then, the surgeon will cut through the muscles and the fat through the gallbladder. The gallbladder will be removed, and the remaining ducts attached to it will be clamped off. After that, the incision will be sutured or stapled closed. In some cases, 1 – 2 small drainage tubes may be placed in the abdomen to allow bile drainage that will be removed before discharge from the hospital.
  • Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy – Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy is a technique done by making small holes (keyholes) or incisions in the abdomen.

Typically, the surgeon inflates the abdomen with carbon dioxide to allow visualization of the internal organs. It is accomplished by placing hollow tubes or small ports in the incision. A lighted camera is used, and surgical instruments are inserted through the ports. Once the gallbladder is cut and removed, sutures or surgical glue/clips will be used to close the incisions.

Possible Risks of a Cholecystectomy

Some of the risks and complications of a laparoscopic or an open cholecystectomy include:

  • Wound Infection
  • Bleeding
  • Pneumonia
  • Heart Complication
  • Blood Clots
  • Urinary Tract Infection
  • Bile Leakage
  • Bile duct injury
  • Return to surgery
  • Pancreatitis
  • Retained Stone at common bile duct
  • Pregnancy complication/fetal distress/premature labor
  • Pneumonia
  • Injury to the nearby organs or other structures
  • Death

What Happens After a Cholecystectomy?

The procedure itself may cause you to feel uncomfortable or sore for a couple of days. You may also experience:

Pain on the surgical site – This may be felt once the effects of the anesthesia are gone. However, it is normal for any surgical procedures because the surgical wound/incision causes minimal tissue damage. To alleviate pain, your physician may prescribe pain medications as well as non-pharmacologic approaches to pain management. Because pain varies from individual to another, doses may differ per case.

Be sure to inform your surgeon if your medication doesn’t help in controlling your pain. In most cases, pain should improve each day after the operation.

Constipation – Decreased activity, anesthesia, and pain medications can contribute to the difficulty of emptying the bowels.

Be sure to drink 8-10 glasses of fluid each day (unless contraindicated) and eat vegetables, fruits, and grains because these foods are high in fiber. A diet high in fiber helps in managing constipation. Your doctor may also prescribe stool softeners and fiber supplements like Metamucil if necessary.

When to Contact Your Surgeon

Contact your surgeon/physician if you experience the following after your cholecystectomy:

  • Pain that worsens
  • Pain that doesn’t go away
  • Hyperthermia (fever) more than 101°F or 38.3°C
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Inability to eat properly
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin)
  • Foul smelling drainage from the incision site
  • Swelling and bleeding on from the wound site
  • No bowel movement 2-3 days post operation


You may be advised to do deep breathing exercises to prevent complications after surgery, such as pneumonia, blood clots, or fluid accumulation in the lungs.

Most patients can resume normal activities after a few days. Others go back to work within a week or two and return to exercise after one month.

Cholecystectomy at Pine Creek Medical Center

This information about cholecystectomy is published to offer education and guidance about the surgical procedure. This article is not intended to replace a discussion with a board-certified gallbladder specialist/surgeon who is trained in managing your condition. It is also important to note that each case is different, and the outcome of any surgical procedure depends on an individual’s general condition.

Talk to your physician or book an appointment with one at Pine Creek Medical Center. You can entrust your cholecystectomy to our highly-skilled surgeons and physicians.



  • “Anatomy Related to Cholecystectomy.” Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly). Web. <>.
  • “Cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal) – Mayo Clinic.” Mayo Clinic – Mayo Clinic.  <>.
  • “Gallbladder Disease | MedlinePlus.” MedlinePlus – Health Information from the National Library of Medicine.  <>.
  • “Gallbladder removal – Complications – NHS.” Home – NHS. Web. <>.
  • “Gallbladder Removal Surgery Information | Cleveland Clinic.” Cleveland Clinic: Every Life Deserves World Class Care. <>.
  • “Gallstones – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic.” Mayo Clinic – Mayo Clinic.  <>.
  • Jones MW, Deppen JG. “Gallbladder, Cholecystectomy, Open.” [Updated 2017 Oct 9]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan-. Web. <>
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Splenectomy Thu, 23 Aug 2018 19:29:59 +0000 What is the Spleen?

The spleen is a lymphatic organ situated behind the lower ribs at the upper left side of the abdomen. It lies near the tail (tip) of the pancreas, beneath our diaphragm and at the back of the stomach.

Do I Need My Spleen?

The spleen plays a vital role as an organ of the immune system and lymphatic system. It aids in immunity by filtering bacteria, platelets, and dying red blood cells from the blood. As an organ of the lymphatic system, it acts as a regulator, controlling the blood flow to the liver. It is also responsible for storing certain blood cells in the body, including platelets.

What is a Splenectomy?

Splenectomy is a surgical procedure done to facilitate the removal of a diseased/ damaged/ overactive or tumor-invaded spleen. It is also indicated for individuals with hematological disorders, splenic abscesses, and non-cirrhotic portal hypertension with GI (gastrointestinal) bleeding.

Why Undergo a Splenectomy?

A splenectomy or surgical removal of the gallbladder is performed for assessment or treatment of certain diseases. It is also done to control signs and symptoms of some ailments like pain or bleeding from a traumatic injury. Other indications of splenectomy can be any of the following:

  • Treatment of disorders such as idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) and other auto-immune diseases
  • Diagnosis or treatment of certain cancers or lymphomas
  • Treatment of some blood disorders
  • Treatment from certain rupture or bleeding secondary to spleen trauma
  • Pain management

What Happens Before a Splenectomy?

To be certain of the diagnosis and the need for spleen removal, your physician will perform a physical exam and request diagnostic testing. You can help your care staff prepare for your surgery by informing them if you have other medical conditions or if you are taking any medications.

What Happens During a Splenectomy?

You will be assisted to the operating room and will be placed under general anesthesia. Currently, there are three different methods to perform a splenectomy.

  • Open Splenectomy – This is done by creating a vertical incision along the abdomen. Then, the surgeon will separate the spleen from the other organs and the attached blood vessels. After removing the spleen, the incision will be closed with sutures or staples.
  • Laparoscopic Splenectomy – Unlike open surgeries, laparoscopic splenectomy involves the creation of 3-4 tiny holes/incisions in the abdomen. Specialized surgical instruments are then used to visualize the abdominal area and remove the spleen. Once the procedure is completed, sutures will be used to close the small incisions.
  • Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Splenectomy – This procedure is performed like the laparoscopic method. However, aside from the tiny incisions made for laparoscopy instruments to be inserted into the abdominal cavity, a large incision is also created to allow removal of a very large spleen.

Possible Risks of a Splenectomy

All surgical procedures have possible risks and complications. Splenectomy is not an exemption. The following risks and complications may occur during or after surgical removal of the spleen:

  • Infection
  • Bleeding
  • Injury to the bowel or other abdominal contents
  • Pancreatic leak
  • Sepsis (Blood infection)

What Happens After a Splenectomy?

The anesthesia and the procedure itself may cause you to feel sore or uncomfortable for a few days. After your splenectomy, you may experience:

Pain – Pain on the surgical site may be felt once the effects of the anesthesia are gone. The characteristic of pain may be different from one person to another.  However, it is normal and is common to any surgical procedures because of the tissue damage from the creation of incision.

Your surgeon will prescribe pain medications and will recommend non-pharmacologic methods of pain management. Some people need 1 to 3 doses of pain-relieving pills and others need more. Also, it is essential that you inform your surgeon if the medication doesn’t help in controlling your pain. In general, your pain should improve each day after your operation.

Constipation – This is pretty common among post-splenectomy patients. Constipation may occur as a side-effect of pain medication. Your doctor may recommend the use of a stool softener, as well as modifications to your diet. Vegetable, grains, and fruits may help you manage constipation because these foods are high in fiber.

Life Without a Spleen

Recovery – You will be advised to do deep breathing and, in some cases, move or exercise as tolerated. Deep breathing and exercise can help prevent complications after surgery, such as pneumonia, blood clots, or fluid pooling in the lungs.

Wound Care – Avoid touching the incision site if your hands are soiled. Be sure to wash your hands before and after touching the skin near the incision. Don’t soak in a bathtub until the stitches or staples are removed. You may take a shower two days after you were sent home unless you are advised not to.

Home Medications  Be sure to ask your physician about the medications you need after your operation. Aside from pain relievers, your surgeon might prescribe stool softeners if you are constipated, as well as antibiotics to keep at home in case you become ill from infections.

Immunizations/Vaccines – Because the human spleen works as part of our immune system, your defense system against some infections may be compromised once the spleen is removed. Although you may still be able to ward off some infections, there are chances that certain diseases may develop quickly. Immunizations might be helpful to prevent these infections such as Influenza, Meningococcal, and Pneumococcal.

Travel – Talk to your physician before traveling out of the country because special precautions may be necessary. If you are regularly spending time outdoors like camping or trekking, you may be more susceptible to rare infections like malaria and babesiosis. Wearing long sleeves and trousers may help you protect yourselves to cover exposed skin. If you become ill while on a camping trip, seek medical help promptly.

Splenectomy at Pine Creek Medical Center

If you were advised to undergo splenectomy due to a hematologic disease, splenic tumor or cysts, and other conditions, talk to your physician or book with one at Pine Creek Medical Center. You can entrust your splenectomy to our highly-skilled and board-certified surgeons and physicians.

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Tarlov Cysts: Could Cysts Be Causing Your Sciatica? Fri, 13 Jul 2018 22:04:47 +0000 An estimated 1 to 10% of the population have sciatica. In fact, many individuals have been affected by it. Aside from worrisome pain that radiates from the back to the leg, sciatica can cause sleep disturbance, difficulty with work or exercise, and interruption of normal activities.

What Is Sciatica?

Sciatica is a medical condition that occurs when the sciatic nerve (longest nerve in the body) gets compressed or pinched. This nerve starts from the base of the spine, through the buttocks, and ends at the feet. Most back pains are often blamed on sciatica. In fact, nowadays, when a patient experiences persistent back pain, physicians assume that it might be sciatica. They typically perform an assessment, and request for MRI scans to show the severity to which a spinal disc may be damaged.

However, according to the Radiological Society of North America, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, of the 1.5 million scans performed annually, there are only 20% of the total cases that show disc herniation.

Incidentally, some cases turn out to be due to symptomatic Tarlov (meningeal) cysts.

Tarlov Cyst

Tarlov cysts, also termed meningeal cysts, are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)- filled portions of the sacral nerve root outer layers. These fluid filled nerve root cysts typically develop along the posterior nerve roots. The increased volume of CSF in these sacral nerve cysts compresses or pushes other neighboring spinal nerves in the sacral area, causing progressive physical symptoms.

Development of Tarlov Cysts

The exact cause of Tarlov cysts is not yet fully understood. However, several investigations propose that they occur due to changes in the normal development of the spinal nerve sheath and spinal column at the lower back. Some of the numerous potential causes that may contribute to Tarlov cysts include:

  • Trauma or injury to the spine due to falls or
  • Connective tissue disorders (such as Marfans)
  • Family history of meningeal cysts
  • Inflammation of the surrounding areas due to nerve irritation
    Fluctuation in the CSF – abnormal decrease or increase in the levels of cerebrospinal fluid

Tarlov Cysts can Cause Excruciating Pain or No Trouble at All

Aside from being rare or unheard of, Tarlov cysts can be asymptomatic. Most people don’t realize they have Tarlov cysts. The only time they might be diagnosed is during an MRI scan of the back. Also, approximately 5% of patients with Tarlov Cyst may experience physical symptoms caused by nerve compression from these cysts.
Sciatic pain from Tarlov cysts typically appears only when the sacral nerves innervating down the legs becomes compressed from the pressure exerted by the increased volume of the Tarlov nerve cyst. Symptoms may differ by patient and may subside or flare up depending on the size of the Tarlov cysts or the severity of the compression it causes. Other patients with advanced Tarlov cysts may experience:

  • Lower back pain
  • Irritability or difficulty sitting for extended periods
  • Numbness or weakness of the lower limbs
  • Burning or prickling sensations at the feet or legs
  • Diminished reflexes from the waist downwards
  • Changes in bowel function – diarrhea or constipation
  • Changes in bladder function – difficulty in emptying of the urinary bladder/ painful urination/ urinary incontinence
  • Pain or discomfort at the genital area
  • Changes in sexual function

Tarlov Cysts Doesn’t Always Mean Surgery

Symptomatic Tarlov cysts may be difficult to diagnose because symptoms can mimic other disorders. If there are changes in bowel function, symptomatic Tarlov cysts may be misdiagnosed as a gastrointestinal problem. If the only presenting symptom is urinary incontinence, it might be mistaken as a genitourinary condition of some sort. To be able to select an appropriate treatment plan, a correct diagnosis is necessary.

Also, clinical interventions vary depending on the size or the location of the cyst, and the severity of the condition. Interventions can be non-surgical or surgical, whichever is suitable and more beneficial for the patient’s individual condition.

Non-surgical treatment may include medications NSAIDs like ibuprofen, Anti-inflammatory drugs, cortisone shots, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage or cyst fluid-aspiration, and removal of the CSF from inside the cyst and filling with a fibrin glue injection.

Tarlov Cysts and Surgery

Surgical treatment options may involve permanent surgical removal of sacral nerve root fluid and treatment to return sacral nerve to original size.

The benefits of any treatment option, especially surgical procedures, should always be deliberated and weighed accordingly against its risks.

Our physicians at Pine Creek Medical Center are highly-skilled to assess, diagnose, and treat symptomatic Tarlov Cysts. If you are looking for pain relief or just want to be sure you are free from Tarlov Cyst, contact Pine Creek Medical Center to schedule a consultation. Our hospital conveniently located in Dallas, TX.

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Hernia Repair Surgery Fri, 06 Jul 2018 16:41:16 +0000 Hernia Repair Surgery: Types and Recovery

Hernia occurs when a weak part in the connective tissue or surrounding muscle causes an individual’s intestine to protrude. These hernias are common and may cause certain issues and discomfort. Oftentimes, they are perceived as a bulge, but there are cases that hernias may go unnoticed until it is discovered by a healthcare professional.

Treatment for hernia varies depending on its type and severity. Here’s an overview of the types, symptoms, and most common causes of hernia.

Types of Hernia

The different types of hernia include:

Groin Hernias (Inguinal and Femoral)

The two hernias that occur in the groin are inguinal and femoral hernias. 96% of groin hernias are found in the inguinal area, and the remaining 4% accounts for femoral hernias.

The weak areas that cause inguinal hernias may be present at birth. These usually happen in children and become evident when intestines pass through the weak spot and form a bulge. In other cases, the weak area can develop over time.

Ventral Hernia

A ventral hernia is a hole or opening through a strong connective tissue and muscle on the abdominal wall. They can form anywhere in the abdomen.

Incisional Hernia

A hernia that forms on the abdominal area after surgery through the incision site is called incisional hernia. For instance, a long incision in the abdomen can cause small hernia anywhere along the incision line. Also, this type of hernia is sometimes called a ‘recurrent’ hernia. Recurrent hernias are hernias that have been repaired previously.

Umbilical Hernia

An umbilical hernia is caused by a weak spot in the abdomen around the belly button, otherwise known as the umbilicus. The weakness on these areas creates an opening, which allows protrusion of the intestines in the abdominal wall. It can also form a bulge under the skin in or around the umbilicus.

Hiatal Hernia

This type of hernia is different from others because instead of intestines, the stomach protrudes through the weak spot of the muscles and connective tissues. It happens when a portion of the stomach bulges through the diaphragm and the chest wall.

Most people with this type of hernia doesn’t experience symptoms like that of other hernias. Typically, the only complaint of patients who have a hiatal hernia is “heartburn.”

Common Signs and Symptoms of Hernia include:

  • A bulge or protrusion of intestine or stomach
  • Abdominal pressure
  • Abdominal pain
  • Symptoms that may worsen when straining or coughing

Causes and Risk Factors of Hernia:

  • Obesity
  • Chronic cough
  • Smoking
  • Pregnancy
  • Straining when lifting heavy objects
  • Premature birth
  • Certain medications like steroids

Surgical Treatment Options

There are two methods for hernia repair, the open technique, and the laparoscopic technique.

Open Technique

This is the traditional approach of performing surgery. To treat the hernia, an incision is created. Then the fat or intestine that is protruding through the opening is reduced into the abdomen. The defect is then repaired through the incision and closed.

There are two ways to repair a hernia with the open technique.

  1. Herniorrhaphy (Herniated Tissue Repair). The first method makes use of sutures to connect the muscles and tissues back together. For larger hernias, this can cause tension (in the repaired hernia) which may result in a failed hernia repair and cause a recurrence. Herniorrhaphy involves making a long incision over the site of the hernia using surgical tools to access the displaced intestine or other organs. The surgeon will then return these protruded or displaced parts to its original location. The area will be sterilized and closed.
  2. Hernioplasty (Mesh Repair). Mesh is a flexible, soft, woven, plastic-like material that has been used for hernia repair for many years. This approach has dramatically reduced hernia recurrence. Many surgeons recommend the use of mesh for umbilical hernia repairs, but others only recommend the use of mesh in larger hernias. There are also different types of mesh, but most are well-accepted by patients’ bodies, and usually allow tissues to grow into them. Hernioplasty is also known as ‘tension-free hernia repair.’

Laparoscopic Technique

The laparoscopic technique is a form of minimally invasive surgery where 3 to 4 small incisions are made in certain areas of the abdomen. Then, a long, thin instrument called a laparoscope with a video camera is inserted. The surgeon will then temporarily inflate the abdomen with gas to have space to work in the abdominal wall.

Hernia Repair Recovery

If there are no complications from surgery, patients may go home the same day. Pain medications may be given because post-operative pain may be experienced. Recovery time varies from patient to patient. Some may only need pain medication the day after surgery, but others may require a couple of days.

Patients may go back to work few days after the operation, as long as the job does not require heavy lifting or strenuous physical activity. Full recovery may be delayed up to 6 weeks post-surgery.

At present, surgery is the only way to fix hernias, but not all types of hernias need to be treated with surgery. If you don’t have symptoms, treatment may be unnecessary. However, if signs and symptoms of hernia bother you, you may talk to your doctor or set up an appointment with one at Pine Creek Medical Center. We have highly-skilled surgeons who perform hernia repairs right here at one of the best in hospitals in Dallas, Texas.


  • “Carolinas Hernia Handbook.” Carolinas HealthCare System is Atrium Health .  <>.
  • “Common Types of Hernia.” Tufts Health Plan – Health Insurance in MA and RI.  <>.
  • “Open Hernia Repair.” Welcome — UNC School of Medicine. <>.
  • “Definition of Herniorrhaphy.” Web. <>.
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Gallbladder Removal Fri, 06 Jul 2018 16:16:36 +0000 Gallbladder Removal: Purpose, Risks, and Procedure

Gallbladder stones are very common and surgical intervention is usually advised to treat this problem. Cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the inflamed or problematic gallbladder. To understand the purpose, risks, and the procedure, let us review the following information on the gallbladder, gallstones, and the procedure itself.

About the Gallbladder

The gallbladder is the small pear-shaped sac that lies under the liver in the right upper abdomen. It stores the bile produced by the liver and is responsible for proper digestion of lipids or fats.

The liver produces about 3 to 5 cups of bile every day. The bile travels through the common hepatic (liver) duct and the cystic duct, and finally to the gallbladder for temporary storage. When we eat food, especially those that are high in fats, the gallbladder secretes the bile into the small intestine.

About Gallstones

Cholelithiasis, the medical term for the formation of gallstones, is usually associated with a diseased gallbladder that is not functioning correctly. Gallstones are stone-like debris that are formed from the bile stored in the gallbladder. They vary in color, shape, and sizes. The most common type mainly consists of excess fats called cholesterol. They may also enlarge over the years or may be squeezed out of the gallbladder into the duct. Gallstones in the common bile duct are termed as Choledocholithiasis.

Gallstones that are stuck in the ducts can block the flow of the bile or cause Cholecystitis – the inflammation of the gallbladder.

Signs and Symptoms of Gallstones

The presence of gallstones may cause any of the following depending on the severity:

  • Pain on right abdomen
  • Fever
  • Nausea or Vomiting
  • Bloating, heartburn, or indigestion
  • Yellowing of the skin (Jaundice), if the gallstones are in the common bile duct

Cholecystectomy: The Surgical Treatment for Gallstones

An operation is the only treatment for acute cholecystitis and may be recommended for gallbladder pain due to gallstones.

Purpose of Gallbladder Removal (Cholecystectomy)

While the gallbladder may not be consider as an essential organ necessary to maintain good health, the bile can cause blockage in the ducts where it usually empties causing pain and/or other medical concerns. Here are some of the most common reasons why a gallbladder removal procedure is performed:

  • To treat Cholelithiasis
  • To treat Choledocholithiasis
  • To treat Cholecystitis
  • To prevent complications
  • To prevent further attacks of pain due to gallstones

Risks of Gallbladder Removal (Cholecystectomy)

Cholecystectomy, like any other surgical procedures, has risks. However, your surgeon will do everything to prevent or minimize the risks associated with cholecystectomy.

  • Infection – infection occurs in less than one out of 1000 patients who undergo laparoscopic procedures
  • Bleeding – this is rare, but if you have chronic biliary disease, you may have a problem with clotting (anti-bleeding) factors
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis – deep vein thrombosis or blood clots in the veins may occur due to immobilization during surgery. In rare cases, it may also travel to the lungs or other parts of the body.
  • Pneumonia lack of breathing exercises, administration of general anesthesia, and immobility are possible causes of pneumonia after surgery
  • Death – this is very rare for healthy patients. Statistics say that for every 1000 patients, 0 to 1 patients die due to gallbladder removal.

The Two Types of Gallbladder Removal (Cholecystectomy)

There are two techniques to perform gallbladder removal (Cholecystectomy): Open Cholecystectomy and Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

Open Cholecystectomy

In an Open Cholecystectomy, the gallbladder is removed by creating an incision on the right side of the abdomen under the rib cage. If you choose to undergo an open cholecystectomy, your surgeon will create an approximately 15 – 16 centimeter incision in the upper right side of the abdomen. He/she will cut through the muscles and fats to the gallbladder. The gallbladder is then removed, and the ducts connected to it are clamped off.

Suture or staples will be used to close the site, and a small drain may be placed from the inside of the abdomen. Typically, this procedure takes about 1 to 2 hours.

Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (Lap-Chole)

Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy also known as “keyhole” cholecystectomy, involves surgery with the use of a tiny camera that is inserted through small incisions. It is done to remove gallbladder without having to create a large opening (cut/incision) in the abdomen. A laparoscope is a narrow tube telescope with a light and video camera. This provides visualization of the gallbladder through a monitor.

The surgeon will remove the gallbladder through the small incisions. The sites are closed with surgical sutures, clips or staples, and steri-strips as necessary.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy may take about 1 to 2 hours.

Expectations Before, During, and After Gallbladder Removal

Before Cholecystectomy

Before your scheduled cholecystectomy, be sure to inform your surgeon or healthcare staff about other medical problems you have. You may also give a list of all medications you are taking.

You should also tell your surgeon about any allergies, history of stroke or epilepsy, or if you smoke, use drugs, alcohol, and herbal medications.

On the day of your operation, you will be advised not to eat or drink for at least few hours before the surgery to reduce the risk of aspiration and other complications from anesthesia.

During Cholecystectomy

An intravenous line or IV fluid will be started to give you fluids and pre-operative medications. This medication will make you feel sleepy. Nurses and patient attendants will be sent to your room to assist you and bring you to the operating room. You’ll be given anesthesia before the surgeon performs the operation. Once the operation is done, you will be transferred to a recovery room.

After Cholecystectomy

Usually, if you do not have complications, you may go home the same day as your laparoscopic cholecystectomy. For an open cholecystectomy, hospital stay may last 2 to 3 days. Also, you will not be allowed to drive immediately after the procedure.

At home, it is important for you to monitor your condition. If you have stomach cramping, yellowing of the skin, absence of bowel movements for >3 days, vomiting, chills, severe pain, high fever, and foul odor or abnormal drainage from the incision; you should call your physician/surgeon.

It is imperative to remember that each person and his/her condition is different. The patient information written above should never replace professional advice of a surgeon who is an expert in the field. If you have questions that are not covered in the topics above, you may call and visit Pine Creek Medical Center – one of the best surgical hospitals in Dallas, Texas.


  • “Bile – Wikipedia.” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  <>.
  • “Cholecystectomy – procedure, recovery, blood, tube, removal, pain, complications, infection.” Encyclopedia of Surgery: A Guide for Patients and Caregivers. <>.
  • “About Cholecystectomy: Surgical Removal of the Gallbladder.” Oxford University Hospitals.  <>.
  • “Cholecystectomy: Surgical Removal of the Gallbladder.” American College of Surgeons.  <>.
  • “A Guide to Gallbladder Surgery.” MUHC Patient Education | MUHC.  <>.


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